The Anticancer Drugs

C H A P T E R F O U R Resistance to Anticancer Drugs Table 4–1 routinely
includes surgery or both, in addition to. Intrinsic versus Acquired Drug Resistance
Drug resistance" is best defined as a state of insensitivity or decreased sensitivity
of ...

Author: William B. Pratt

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780195067392

Category: Medical

Page: 352

View: 101

This is an up-to-date review of the pharmacology, mechanisms of action, development of resistance, and toxicity of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. A rationale for their clinical use, based on cancer cell biology, is given for each class of drugs.


(collectively known as stone fruit), whose anticancer virtues were previously
unknown. According to a group of researchers in Texas who reviewed more than
a hundred species, these fruits—particularly plums—are at least as rich in ...

Author: David Servan-Schreiber, MD, PhD

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9781101163054

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 288

View: 154

The revolutionary, New York Times bestselling guide to the powerful lifestyle changes that fight and prevent cancer—an integrative approach based on the latest scientific research “A common-sense blueprint for healthy living.” —Chicago Tribune “Resonating with cancer support communities and recommended nationwide.” —Los Angeles Times “Life affirming . . . filled with practical advice.” —The Seattle Times David Servan-Schreiber was a rising neuroscientist with his own brain imaging laboratory when, in the middle of an equipment test, he discovered a tumor the size of a walnut in his own brain. Forced to confront what medicine knows about cancer, and all that we still do not know, Servan-Schreiber marshaled his will to live and set out to understand the complex inner workings of the body’s natural cancer-fighting capabilities. He soon found himself on a decades-long journey from disease and relapse into scientific exploration and, finally, a new view of health. Anticancer is at once the moving story of one doctor’s inner and outer search for wellness and a radical exposition of the roles that lifestyle, environment, and trauma play in our health. Drawing on the latest research in integrative medicine that blends conventional and alternative approaches, Servan-Schreiber concisely explains what makes cancer cells thrive, what inhibits them, and how we can empower ourselves to prevent their growth. His advice details how to develop a science-based anticancer diet (and the small changes that can make a big difference); how to reap the benefits of exercise, yoga, and meditation; which toxic, unsafe products to replace in your home; and how to stave off the effects of helplessness and unhealed wounds to regain balance. Anticancer’s synthesis of science and personal experience marks a transformation in the way we understand and confront cancer. A long-running bestseller that has changed the lives of millions around the world, Anticancer remains a pioneering and peerless resource, an inspirational and revolutionary guide to “a new way of life.”

Medicinal Chemistry of Anticancer Drugs

CHAPTER. 3. Anticancer. Drugs. That. Inhibit. Hormone. Action. Contents 1.
Introduction 54 2. Estrogens and Their Involvement in Carcinogenesis 54 3.
Antiestrogens as Antitumor Drugs 58 3.1. Nonsteroidal antiestrogens (SERMs)
58 3.2.

Author: Carmen Avendano

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080559629

Category: Medical

Page: 400

View: 193

Antitumor chemotherapy is nowadays a very active field of research, and a huge amount of information on the topic is generated every year. Although many books are available that deal with clinical aspects of cancer chemotherapy, this book addresses the need for an updated treatment from the point of view of medicinal chemistry and drug design. The focus of Medicinal Chemistry of Anticancer Drugs is on the mechanism of action of antitumor drugs from the molecular point of view and on the relationship between chemical structure and chemical and biochemical reactivity of antitumor agents, aiming at the rationalization of the action of this type of drug, which would allow the design of new active structures. * Explains the biological basis of cancer treatment and the role of chemists in improving anticancer drugs * Provides the historical background and serves as a comprehensive and practical guide on cancer research and anticancer drug development * Includes coverage of different approaches to treating cancer, drug resistance, and a chapter on cancer prevention

Novel Anticancer Drug Protocols

Introduction In vitro anticancer drug testing is routinely performed on cell lines
established from various types of malignant tumors. The use of these cell models
has proved effective in determining the worthiness of potential drugs for further ...

Author: John K. Buolamwini

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1592593801

Category: Medical

Page: 372

View: 741

This book not only surveys the whole arena of novel anticancer drug targets, but also presents a wide-ranging selection of cuttingedge techniques currently being applied throughout novel antitumor drug discovery and development. The methods are applied to experiments involving such topics as immunotherapy, angiogenesis, cancer metastasis, the cell cycle, signal transduction inhibitors, apoptosis, antibodies, antisense molecules, microarray gene expression, flow cytometry, and PET imaging for cancer target validation. There are also proven methods for the preclinical identification of drug targets. Validate new drug targets both preclinically and clinically Identify novel anticancer drug targets in preclinical stages Follow proven instructions to obtain successful results and avoid failure.

Anticancer Therapeutics

These are truly exciting times to be involved in anticancer therapeutics. Many
would consider that we are now firmly in the second 'golden age' of discovering
and developing new treatments for cancer. Such therapies represent the fruits ...

Author: Sotiris Missailidis

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470697032

Category: Science

Page: 424

View: 594

Written by the winner of the 2008 Mike Price Fellowship "This volume provides a comprehensive overview of the wealth of information now available in this important and fast-moving subject." Anticancer Research, November - December 2008 This book provides a clear introduction to the area, with an overview of the various drug design and development approaches for cancer therapeutics and their progress in today’s multidisciplinary approach to cancer treatment. Clearly structured throughout, the book not only provides information on currently used molecular treatment approaches, but also describes the various agents that are currently at various stages of development and clinical trials, thus making them the drugs of tomorrow. The book goes on to present current therapeutic regimes including their indications and side effects, as well as their position in the international market in terms of sales and development costs. Furthermore, coverage of our advancement in the understanding of cancer biology and how this has driven the drug discovery process is clearly discussed. Modern drug discovery aspects, through genomic, proteomic and metabolomic approaches are referred to as well as combinatorial chemistry techniques and discovery of chemotherapeutic agents from plant extracts, re-use of old drugs and drugs from other indications, or de novo rational drug design. Including contributions from leading experts in the field, this book provides the reader with a complete overview of the various types of therapeutic agents, current and emerging, as well as other aspects associated with anticancer therapy, drug design, resistance and clinical trials in oncology.

Evidence based Anticancer Materia Medica

Evidence-based Anticancer Materia Medica, Evidence-based Anticancer
Complementary and Alternative Medicine, DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-0526-5_3, ©
Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011 Verhoef et al. 2005; Evans et al.

Author: William C.S. Cho

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400705265

Category: Medical

Page: 442

View: 330

Cancer is one of the leading killers in the world and the incidence is increasing, but most cancer patients and cancer survivors suffer much from the disease and its conventional treatments’ side effects. In the past, clinical data showed that some complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) possessed anticancer abilities, but some clinicians and scientists have queried about the scientific validity of CAM due to the lack of scientific evidence. There is great demand in the knowledge gap to explore the scientific and evidence-based knowledge of CAM in the anticancer field. With this aim, a book series is needed to structurally deliver the knowledge to readers. Recently there have been encouraging results from both laboratory experiments and clinical trials demonstrating the anticancer effects of herbal medicine. There is considerable interest among oncologists and cancer researchers to find anticancer agents in herbal medicine. This volume is a specialised book presenting the up-to-date scientific evidence for anticancer herbal medicine. This unique book provides an overview of the anticancer herbal medicines and remedies, as well as a detailed evidence-based evaluation of 18 common anticancer herbal medicines covering their biological and pharmacological properties, efficacies, herb-drug interactions, adverse effects, pre-clinical studies, and clinical applications. Gathering international opinion leaders’ views, this volume will contribute great to the cancer, academic, and clinical community by providing evidence-based information on the anticancer efficacy of herbal medicine. Readership Oncologists, cancer researchers, pharmacologists, pharmaceutical specialists, Chinese medicine practitioners, medical educators, postgraduates and advanced undergraduates in biomedical disciplines, cancer caregivers, cancer patients.


they are exposed to industrial wastes that burden the body's anticancer defences.
4 The disadvantaged are the most glaring victims in our affluent world, those who
most need to make use of the natural means of resisting such aggressions.

Author: David Servan-Schreiber

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 0141970545

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 336

View: 164

An updated edition for 2011 including all the latest medical research and up-to-date studies. An approachable, empowering guide to staying healthy and fighting disease. Would it surprise you to hear that one in four people are affected by cancer? If you knew that simple lifestyle changes could significantly reduce your chances of developing the disease, would you take advantage of your natural defences? 'I had cancer. I was diagnosed for the first time 15 years ago. I received conventional treatment and the cancer went into remission, but I relapsed after that. Then I decided to learn everything I could to help my body defend itself against the illness. I've lived cancer free now for seven years. In this book, I'd like to tell you the stories - scientific and personal - behind what I learned.' Author David-Servan Schreiber is an academic physician with a wealth of experience in the field of integrative medicine. He will show you how, through simple alterations in diet, lifestyle and attitude, you can tackle cancer alongside conventional treatments, or even avoid it altogether. This is not a biology textbook, but a practical, insightful and individual guide that will allow you to make the best choices for your own health and well-being.

Organ Directed Toxicities of Anticancer Drugs

Proceedings of the First International Symposium on the Organ Directed
Toxicities of the Anticancer Drugs Burlington, Vermont, USA-June 4–6, 1987
Miles P. Hacker, John S. Lazo, Thomas R. Tritton ...

Author: Miles P. Hacker

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461320232

Category: Medical

Page: 254

View: 576

The addition of chemotherapy as an effective means to treat cancer has had a major impact on selected human malignancies. Due to a general inability to dif ferentiate between normal and neoplastic cells, little selectivity exists in currently used oncolytic drugs. Consequently, significant toxicity to the patient is expected when systemic cancer chemotherapy is chosen as an appropriate therapeutic in tervention. Much of this toxicity, such as damage to the bone marrow, gastroin testinal tract, or hair follicles, is predictable based upon the fact that anticancer drugs kill actively dividing cells. These types of toxicities, while serious, are usually manageable and reversible and are, therefore, not often considered to be dose limiting. Unfortunately, several of the most important anticancer drugs also damage tissues in which the growth fraction is relatively small. Such toxicities can not be predicted based on the chemical structure of the drugs, are often not detected in preclinical studies, and are encountered frequently for the first time in clinical studies. Further, unlike most of the proliferative-dependent toxicities, the unpre dicted toxicities are usually irreversible or only partially reversible upon cessation of drug administration. Because of this, the unpredicted toxicities are referred to as dose limiting. They represent a significant barrier to the ultimate efficacy of several of our most important anticancer drugs.

Cytotoxic Anticancer Drugs Models and Concepts for Drug Discovery and Development

The main features of the debate and the outcomes impacting on present day drug
development have been extensively documented over the past 25 years (1-10).
The design of studies for preclinical toxicology of anti- cancer drugs ...

Author: Frederick A. Valeriote

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792316299

Category: Medical

Page: 409

View: 866

Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Cancer Symposium, Detroit, Michigan, April 26-28, 1990.

Anticancer Genes

cell death observed with viral Anticancer Genes would not be a fate imposed by
them but rather a defense mechanism of infected, actively proliferating target
cells [12]. Apart from viral Anticancer Genes, research over the past couple of
years ...

Author: Stefan Grimm

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 144716458X

Category: Science

Page: 283

View: 247

This book discusses the emergence of a new class of genes with a specific anticancer activity. These genes, recently defined as “Anticancer Genes”, are reviewed in individual chapters on their mode of action, the specific cell death signals they induce, and the status of attempts to translate them into clinical application. Anticancer Genes provides an overview of this nascent field, its genesis, current state, and prospect. It discusses how Anticancer Genes might lead to the identification of a repertoire of signaling pathways directed against cellular alterations that are specific for tumor cells. With contributions from experts worldwide, Anticancer Genes is an essential guide to this dynamic topic for researchers and students in cancer research, molecular medicine, pharmacology and toxicology and genetics as well as clinicians and clinical researchers interested in the therapeutic potential of this exciting new field.

Anticancer Drug Development

Clinical cancer chemotherapy in the 20th century has been dominated by the
development of genotoxic drugs, initiated by the discovery of the anticancer
properties of nitrogen mustard and the folic acid analogue aminopterin in the

Author: Bruce C. Baguley

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080490441

Category: Medical

Page: 397

View: 562

Here in a single source is a complete spectrum of ideas on the development of new anticancer drugs. Containing concise reviews of multidisciplinary fields of research, this book offers a wealth of ideas on current and future molecular targets for drug design, including signal transduction, the cell division cycle, and programmed cell death. Detailed descriptions of sources for new drugs and methods for testing and clinical trial design are also provided. One work that can be consulted for all aspects of anticancer drug development Concise reviews of research fields, combined with practical scientific detail, written by internationally respected experts A wealth of ideas on current and future molecular targets for drug design, including signal transduction, the cell division cycle, and programmed cell death Detailed descriptions of the sources of new anticancer drugs, including combinatorial chemistry, phage display, and natural products Discussion of how new drugs can be tested in preclinical systems, including the latest technology of robotic assay systems, cell culture, and experimental animal techniques Hundreds of references that allow the reader to access relevant scientific and medical literature Clear illustrations, some in color, that provide both understanding of the field and material for teaching

Macromolecular Anticancer Therapeutics

It is therefore of importance to develop new approaches for safer and more
efficient delivery of anticancer compounds to tumors both at the cell and tissue
level, thereby improving the therapeutic index of these medicines. In this context

Author: L. Harivardhan Reddy

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441905079

Category: Medical

Page: 500

View: 701

In spite of the development of various anticancer drugs, the therapy of cancer has remained challenging for decades. The current therapy of cancer is overwhelmed because of the inability to deliver therapeutics to all regions of a tumor in effective therapeutic concentrations, intrinsic or acquired resistance to the treatment with currently available agents via genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, and toxicity. As a result, cancer therapy using conventional therapeutics and different types of treatment regimens using this therapeutics has not led to a convincing survival benefit of the patients. In this context, Macromolecular therapeutics offer several advantages over conventional low molecular therapeutics by various ways such as, enable the use of larger doses of these agents by limiting the toxicity, by enhanced permeability and retention into tumors, by tumor targeting using tumor-specific antibodies, by specific inhibition of oncogenes using anticancer oligonucleotides etc. Cancer treatment using this macromolecular therapeutics has considerably improved the survival benefit for patients. As a result, various macromolecular therapeutics are already commercialized or are under clinical development. Although we are far from a real magic bullet today, looking at the pace of research and current success in this field of macromolecular therapeutics, it appears that we are approaching a magic bullet for the efficient treatment of cancer. Thus, we believe that the subject of this book is very timely, and that the book will fill an unmet need in the market. This book is unique and assembles various types and aspects of macromolecular anticancer therapeutics for cancer therapy in one shell and conveys the importance of this interdisciplinary field to the broad audience. Thus, in a nutshell, this book details the basics of cancer, and various therapeutic strategies such as those based on macromolecular therapeutics hence can become an important reference for practitioners, oncologists, medical pharmacologists, medicinal chemists, biomedical scientists, experimental pharmacologists, pharmaceutical technologists, and particularly it can essentially become a handbook of macromolecular therapeutics for cancer therapy for graduates, post-graduates and Ph.D. students in these fields.

The Oral Anticancer Medicine Handbook

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Risks associated with oral agents The majority of
anticancer therapies for solid tumours have traditionally been given by the
intravenous route. Historically, with the exception of haematological
malignancies, very ...

Author: Steve Williamson


ISBN: 1409240444


Page: 193

View: 732

A reference guide to oral chemotherapy and oralanticancer medicines, including advice on safeprescribing, handling and administration.

Handbook of Anticancer Drugs from Marine Origin

Until now, several marine natural products have been accessed for the
anticancer property and few of them are in clinical trials too. Marine fungi are
taxonomically diverse, largely productive, biologically active, and chemically
unique offering a ...

Author: Se-Kwon Kim

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319071459

Category: Science

Page: 805

View: 488

This timely desk reference focuses on marine-derived bioactive substances which have biological, medical and industrial applications. The medicinal value of these marine natural products are assessed and discussed. Their function as a new and important resource in novel, anticancer drug discovery research is also presented in international contributions from several research groups. For example, the potential role of Spongistatin, Apratoxin A, Eribulin mesylate, phlorotannins, fucoidan, as anticancer agents is explained. The mechanism of action of bioactive compounds present in marine algae, bacteria, fungus, sponges, seaweeds and other marine animals and plants are illustrated via several mechanisms. In addition, this handbook lists various compounds that are active candidates in chemoprevention and their target actions. The handbook also places into context the demand for anticancer nutraceuticals and their use as potential anti-cancer pharmaceuticals and medicines. This study of advanced and future types of natural compounds from marine sources is written to facilitate the understanding of Biotechnology and its application to marine natural product drug discovery research.

Advances in Anticancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry

46 Advances in Anticancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, 2013, Vol. 2, 46-129
CHAPTER 2 Recent Developments in Organometallic Supramolecular
Complexes as Anticancer Drugs Cheng-He Zhou*, Hui-Zhen Zhang, Sheng-Feng
Cui, ...

Author: Michelle Prudhomme

Publisher: Bentham Science Publishers

ISBN: 1608054969

Category: Medical

Page: 485

View: 844

Advances in Anticancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry is an exciting eBook series comprising a selection of updated articles previously published in the peer-reviewed journal Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. The second Volume of this eBook series gathers updated reviews on several classes of molecules exhibiting anticarcinogenic potential as well as some important targets for the development of novel anticancer drugs.

New Approaches to Natural Anticancer Drugs

During past decades, anticancer drug discovery has grown quickly and hundreds
of novel active compounds of natural origin have been examined to find a way
toward clinical trials, and then to the world pharmaceutical markets. Now is the ...

Author: Soodabeh Saeidnia

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319140272

Category: Medical

Page: 106

View: 746

This book provides an up-to-date review of recently identified natural anti-tumor compounds from various natural origins including plants, fungi, endophytic fungi and marine organisms. It also includes discussion of new areas such as biotechnology and nanoparticles. Chapters explain the challenges and developments in anti-cancer drug discovery approaches, traditional remedies for prevention and treatment of cancer, marine-derived anti-cancer compounds, and antibiotics used as anti-cancer agents, as well as different classes of terpenoids and carbohydrates, which have been the subject of discussion in this field as efficient anti-cancer candidates. This book will be a concise guide for researchers in the field of pharmaceutical sciences, students and residents in pharmacy and medicine as well as those researching phytochemistry and natural products.

Handbook of Anticancer Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

Erin R. Gardner Abstract Accurate and precise data on drug concentrations is
critical for anticancer drug development. The ability to measure anticancer agents
is essential throughout the drug development process, and numerous analytical ...

Author: Michelle A. Rudek

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461491355

Category: Medical

Page: 836

View: 827

There are many steps on the road from discovery of an anticancer drug to securing its final approval by the Food and Drug Administration. In this thoroughly updated and expanded second edition of the Handbook of Anticancer Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics, leading investigators synthesize an invaluable overview of the experimental and clinical processes of anticancer drug development, creating a single indispensable reference that covers all the steps from the identification of cancer-specific molecular targets to screening techniques and the development and validation of bioanalytical methods to clinical trial design and all phases of clinical trials. The authors have included new material on phase 0 trials in oncology, organ dysfunction trials, drug formulations and their impact on anticancer drug PK/PD including strategies to improve drug delivery, pharmacogenomics and cancer therapy, high throughput platforms in drug metabolism and transport pharmacogenetics, imaging in drug development and nanotechnology in cancer. Authoritative and up-to-date, Handbook of Anticancer Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics, 2nd Edition provides in one comprehensive and highly practical volume a detailed step-by-step guide to the successful design and approval of anticancer drugs. Road map to anticancer drug development from discovery to NDA submission Discussion of molecular targets and preclinical screening Development and validation of bioanalytical methods Chapters on clinical trial design and phase 0, I, II, III clinical trials Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenomics, and pharmacogenetics of anticancer agents Review of the drug development process from both laboratory and clinical perspectives New technological advances in imaging, high throughput platforms, and nanotechnology in anticancer drug development

Anticancer Agents from Natural Products

Natural products have made an enormous contribution to cancer chemotherapy,
and over half of the current anticancer agents in clinical use are natural products
or are derived from natural products. In spite of this fact, no book published in ...

Author: Gordon M. Cragg

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420039652

Category: Medical

Page: 600

View: 997

Plants, marine organisms, and microorganisms have evolved complex chemical defense and signaling systems that are designed to protect them from predators and provide other biological benefits. These organisms thus produce substances containing novel chemotypes that may have beneficial effects for humans. As collection methods improve and new screen

Biochemical Modulation of Anticancer Agents Experimental and Clinical Approaches

It was also shown that in vitro exposure of erythrocytes to AmB results in the
entrapment of daunomycin within the erythrocyte which then becomes usable as
an effective drug carrier (46). 4.4.2 In vivo potentiation of various anticancer

Author: Frederick A. Valeriote

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461323312

Category: Medical

Page: 350

View: 231

Biochemical Modulation at the present time defines an area of study in which the intracellular metabolism of a given anti cancer agent is modulated (usually by a noncytotoxic agent or a cytotoxic agent at sufficiently low dosage to make it non cytotoxic) in order to either increase the effectiveness of the particular agent against tumor cells or decrease its cytotox icity against normal cells. The major focus of modulation has been the agents 5-fluorouracil (FUra), arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C), methotrexate (MTX) and a few alkylating agents. The major thrust of the studies has been to increase the flow of the anticancer agent along the pathway responsible for the formation of the cytotoxic species: for example, FUra to FUTP or ara-C to ara-CTP. While in most cases the application of research re sults to clinical trials does not require the subsequent exper tise of the laboratory researchers, application of biochemical modulatory schemes to clinical protocols necessitate a dramatic break with the past procedures. As shown in the laboratory clinical loop below, close collaboration between the laboratory and clinical investigator is essential. While the laboratory REDEFINE TECHNOLOGY, TESTS OR QUESTIONS FOR FURTHER THERAPEUTIC ADVANCE CLINICAL EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL (LABORATORY) RESEARCH STUDIES DEFINE AND TEST APPROPRIATE SCIENTIFIC PARAMETERS results define rationally-based regimens, it is essential that the clinical protocols contain the requirement that clinical material (either tumor or normal tissues) be sampled to deter mine whether the biochemical modulation being proposed is in fact beinq accomplished.

Anticancer Agents from Natural Products Second Edition

The potential of natural products as anticancer agents was recognized in the
1950s by the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) under the leadership of the late
Dr. Jonathan Hartwell, and the NCI has since made major contributions to the ...

Author: Gordon M. Cragg

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439813825

Category: Science

Page: 767

View: 816

The approach to drug discovery from natural sources has yielded many important new pharmaceuticals inaccessible by other routes. In many cases the isolated natural product may not be an effective drug for any of several reasons, but it nevertheless may become a drug through chemical modification or have a novel pharmacophore for future drug design. In summarizing the status of natural products as cancer chemotherapeutics, Anticancer Agents from Natural Products, Second Edition covers the: History of each covered drug—a discussion of its mechanism on action, medicinal chemistry, synthesis, and clinical applications Potential for novel drug discovery through the use of genome mining as well as future developments in anticancer drug discovery Important biosynthetic approaches to "unnatural" natural products Anticancer Agents from Natural Products, Second Edition discusses how complex target-oriented synthesis—enabled by historic advances in methodology—has enormously expanded the scope of the possible. This book covers the current clinically used anticancer agents that are either natural products or are clearly derived from natural product leads. It also reviews drug candidates currently in clinical development since many of these will be clinically used drugs in the future. Examples include the drugs etoposide and teniposide derived from the lead compound podophyllotoxin; numerous analogs derived from taxol; topotecan, derived from camptothecin; and the synthetic clinical candidates, E7389 and HTI-286, developed from the marine leads, halichondrin B and hemiasterlin.