Models of Understanding Text

Lay arguers rarely generate evidence againsttheir own position, and Stratman (1990) has shown thesameto be true inlegal circles. Judges who depend onunbiased summaries fromlawyers are more oftenthannot disappointed, because lawyers ...

Author: Bruce K. Britton

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1317779657

Category: Psychology

Page: 376

View: 389

What is text understanding? It is the dynamic process of constructing coherent representations and inferences at multiple levels of text and context, within the bottleneck of a limited-capacity working memory. The field of text and discourse has advanced to the point where researchers have developed sophisticated models of comprehension, and identified the particular assumptions that underlie comprehension mechanisms in precise analytical or mathematical detail. The models offer a priori predictions about thought and behavior, not merely ad hoc descriptions of data. Indeed, the field has evolved to a mature science. The contributors to this volume collectively cover the major models of comprehension in the field of text and discourse. Other books are either narrow -- covering only a single theoretical framework -- or do not focus on systematic modeling efforts. In addition, this book focuses on deep levels of understanding rather than language codes, syntax, and other shallower levels of text analysis. As such, it provides readers with up-to-date information on current psychological models specified in quantitative or analytical detail.

Advances in instructional Psychology

is winning, an arguer should select evidence that will be most persuasive to an opponent and/or to a judge and must ... The general hypothesis is that arguers with fairly strong commitments to a position are likely to make incorrect ...

Author: Robert Glaser

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317954424

Category: Education

Page: 360

View: 782

The contributors to this volume address reasoning and problem solving as fundamental to learning and teaching and to modern literacy. The research on expertise and the development of competence makes it clear that structures of knowledge and cognitive process should be tightly linked throughout education to attain high levels of ability. The longstanding pedagogical assumption that the attainment of useful knowledge proceeds from lower level learning based on the practice of fundamental skills that demand little thought, to higher level competence in which problem solving finally plays an increasing role, is no longer tenable. It is now clear that thinking is not an outcome of basic learning, but is part of the basic acquisition of knowledge and skill. In learning to read, for example, decoding the printed word and understanding simple texts is an act of problem solving, requiring inference and elaboration by the reader. The prevalence of reasoning with information at all levels makes the details of its involvement a fundamental influence on learning and instruction -- a recurring theme in each of the chapters. A rich variety of topics is addressed including: *an analysis of the components of teaching competence *the evolution of a learner's mathematical understanding *the use of causal models for generating scientific explanations *the facilitation of meaningful learning through text illustrations *the competence of children in argumentative interaction that results in conceptual change.

Conversation

Arguers almost always begin a negotiation by trying to convince the other about the greater legitimacy of their position. In the give and take of conflict talk, even children of preschool age attempt to provide reasons for supporting ...

Author: Talmy Givón

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9027229295

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 302

View: 766

The papers in this volume were originally presented at the Symposium on Conversation, held at the University of New Mexico in July 1995. The symposium brought together scholars who work on face-to-face communication from a variety of perspectives: social, cultural, cognitive and communicative. Our aim for both the symposium and this volume has been to challenge some of the prevailing dichotomies in discourse studies: First, the cleavage between the study of information flow and the study of social interaction. Second, the theoretical division between speech-situation models and cognitive models. Third, the methodological split between the study of spontaneous conversation in natural context and the study of speech production and comprehension under controlled experimental conditions. And fourth, the rigid genre distinction between narrative and conversational discourse.All four dichotomies have been useful either methodologically or historically. But important as they may have been in the past, the time has perhaps come to work toward an integrated approach to the study of human communication, one that will be less dependent on narrow reductions.Both the ontological primacy and the methodological challenge of natural face-to-face communication are self evident. Human language has evolved, is acquired, and is practiced most commonly in the context of face-to-face communication. Most past theory-building in either linguistics or psychology has not benefited from the study of face-to-face communication, a fact that is regrettable and demands rectification. We hope that this volume tilts in the right direction.

Argumentation in Everyday Life

COOPERATIVE STANCE: Arguers pursue mutualinterest by treating their co-arguer(s) and audience(s) as equals Appeals to ... Manipulative arguers won't likely impose their position through force, but they may change the subject when ...

Author: Jeffrey P. Mehltretter Drury

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1506383602

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 344

View: 859

Argumentation in Everyday Life provides you with the tools you need to argue effectively in the classroom and beyond. Jeffrey P. Mehltretter Drury offers rich coverage of theory while balancing everyday applicability, allowing you to use your skills soundly. Drury introduces the fundamentals of constructing and refuting arguments using the Toulmin model and ARG conditions (Acceptability, Relevance, and Grounds). Numerous real-word examples are connected to the theories of rhetoric and argumentation discussed—enabling you to practice and apply the content in personal, civic, and professional contexts, as well as traditional academic debates. Encouraging self-reflection, this book empowers you to find your voice and create positive change through argumentation in everyday life.

Across the Lines of Disciplines

Besides the difficulty in maintaining an image of consistency, arguers have difficulty maintaining two other images in a ... Thus an arguer may reject the opponent's position because it is inconsistent with the arguer's self-image.

Author: Frans H. van Eemeren

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110867710

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 411

View: 327


Reason in the Balance

The straw person fallacy involves attacking a misdescribed argument or position. Arguers commit the fallacy of straw person when they attribute to a proponent a view the proponent does not hold; they pretend to refute the view the ...

Author: Sharon Bailin

Publisher: Hackett Publishing

ISBN: 1624664792

Category: Philosophy

Page: 488

View: 719

Unlike most texts in critical thinking, Reason in the Balance focuses broadly on the practice of critical inquiry, the process of carefully examining an issue in order to come to a reasoned judgment. Although analysis and critique of individual arguments have an important role to play, this text goes beyond that dimension to emphasize the various aspects that go into the practice of inquiry, including identifying issues and relevant contexts, understanding competing cases, and making a comparative judgment. Distinctive Features of the Text: Emphasis on applying critical thinking to complex issues with competing arguments Inclusion of chapters on inquiry in specific contexts Attention to the dialogical aspects of inquiry, including sample dialogues Emphasis on the spirit of inquiry The Second Edition Features: Updated examples and items of current interest New dialogues on vaccination, prostitution, and climate change New material on biases in reasoning, including emotional, psychological, social, and cognitive The Reason in the Balance Website includes: An Appendix on Logic Exercises Quizzes

Reasonableness and Effectiveness in Argumentative Discourse

The central question then becomes assessing whether and how the elements that constitute the reasoning hold together in order to validate the arguers position. But argumentation does not consist in a single individual privately drawing ...

Author: Frans H. van Eemeren

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319209558

Category: Philosophy

Page: 904

View: 207

This volume presents 50 contributions on the themes of reasonableness and effectiveness and their connections, which are central issues in argumentation theory. It discusses van Eemeren’s views on the study of argumentation; the approach to argumentation adopted in pragma-dialectics; pragma-dialectical perspectives on the dialectical and pragmatic dimensions of argumentative discourse; the notion of strategic maneuvering; the pragma-dialectical method of analyzing argumentative discourse; the treatment of fallacies as violations of rules for critical discussion; pragma-dialectical views on context, the role of logic, verbal indicators of argumentative moves and argument schemes; and the process of writing and rewriting argumentative texts. The pragma-dialectical quantitative approach to empirical research on argumentative discourse is illustrated by reporting on selected, illustrative experimental studies, as well as qualitative studies of historical cases.

Perspectives on Argumentation

Infante defines verbal aggressiveness as " the inclination to attack the selfconcepts of individuals instead of , or in addition to , their positions on particular issues " ( p . 7 ) . An arguer who resorts to personal attacks on ...

Author: Wayne Brockriede

Publisher: IDEA

ISBN: 9781932716191

Category: Education

Page: 360

View: 954

Wayne Brockriede's contribution to studies of argumentation continues to influence contemporary research. Perspectives on Argumentation identifies the pertinent theories and contemporary applications on which students can build their own skills of reasoning and can understand the argument practices of others. Book jacket.

Arguer s Position

statements in an arguer's commitment - store . In fact we often do not know , but can guess , whether a particular statement is included in the position of some participant in the arena of political disputation .

Author: Douglas N. Walton

Publisher: Praeger

ISBN:

Category: Political Science

Page: 301

View: 997

Douglas N. Walton considers the question of whether the conventions of informal conversation can be articulated more precisely than they are at present. Specifically, he addresses the problem of the fallacy of ad hominem argumentation as it occurs in natural settings. Can rules be formulated to determine if criticisms of apparent hypocrisy in an argument are defensible or refutable? Walton suggests that they can, and ultimately defends the thesis that ad hominem reasoning is not fallacious per se. He carries his analysis to the core of action--theoretic reasoning--by examining a number of specimen arguments. As suggested by the title, the conclusion of ad hominem argument is demonstrated to be relative to the arguer's position. In the appendixes of the book, articles by Gerald McAuliffe and Gordon R. Lowe illustrate vivid and powerful cases in which Walton's contentions are put to the test.

Arguments from Ignorance

Another typical characteristic of position in dialogue is that we may know certain general principles in an arguer's position, but we may not know the specific propositions that arguer will accept on a specific issue.

Author: Douglas Walton

Publisher: Penn State Press

ISBN: 027104196X

Category: Philosophy

Page:

View: 512