Photochemistry of Planetary Atmospheres

Thus, Earth's atmosphere can only be the result of a large input from the
biosphere, a view that is championed by Lovelock and expounded in chapter 9.
There is another preliminary survey we can make that gives us further insight into
the ...

Author: Yuk Ling Yung

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 019510501X

Category: Science

Page: 456

View: 435

This valuable reference presents detailed studies of eleven planetary atmospheres at the same time it offers an extensive survey of the principal chemical cycles that control the present composition and past history of these planetary atmospheres.

Food Preservation by Modified Atmospheres

I. GENERAL The use of modified atmospheres ( MA ) for the preservation of
foodstuffs is as old as it is new and modern . Hermetic storage of grain was
practiced in ancient times in underground pits in the dry , subtropical regions of
the Middle ...

Author: Moshe Calderon

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780849365690

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 416

View: 118

This volume provides the reader with the updated state-of-the-art in the Modified Atmospheres field. It explains the Modified Atmospheres Method which is derived from the ancient Hermetic Storage Technique of keeping grain and seeds, which was practiced in Middle Eastern and other ancient cultures. This unique work covers all aspects of the field and reveals new important, useful information. This interesting publication is a valuable guidebook for all involved in postharvest agriculture, such as agronomists, horticulturists, extension officers and teachers at agricultural schools. It is also an important reference source for entomologists, postharvest fruit pathologists and physiologists, as well as agricultural engineers, food scientists, and food technologists.

The Physics of Atmospheres

1 is the absorption by various constituents in the earth ' s atmosphere ; electronic
bands occur in the ultraviolet and vibration - rotation and pure rotation bands due
to minor constituents in the infrared . The major constituents nitrogen and ...

Author: John T. Houghton

Publisher: CUP Archive

ISBN: 9780521214438

Category: Science

Page: 203

View: 693

Dr Houghton has revised the acclaimed first edition of The Physics of Atmospheres in order to bring this important textbook completely up-to-date. Several factors have led to vigorous growth in the atmospheric sciences, particularly the availability of powerful computers for detailed modelling, the investigation of the atmospheres of other planets, and techniques of remote sensing. The author describes the physical processes governing the structure and circulation of the atmosphere. Simple physical models are constructed by applying the principles of classical thermodynamics, radiative transfer and fluid mechanics, together with analytic and numerical techniques. These models are applied to real planetary atmospheres. This new edition is essential for undergraduates or graduate students studying atmospheric physics, climatology or meteorology, as well as planetary scientists with an interest in atmospheres.


Stellar Atmospheres Beyond Classical Models

A method is presented that permits the calculation of intensity - weighted effective
opacity means which account for the blanketing effect of tens of thousands of
spectral lines in expanding atmospheres . The coefficients are evaluated as a ...

Author: L. Crivellari

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792313434

Category: Science

Page: 461

View: 902

The theory of stellar atmospheres is one of the most important branches of modern astrophysics. It is first of all a major tool for understanding all aspects of stars. As the physical properties of their outer layers can now be found with high precision, firm conclusions can be drawn about the internal structure and evolution of stars. Moreover, improvements in our knowledge of the chemical composition of stars is shedding new light on the chemical evolution of galaxies and of the Universe as a whole. Because the outer layers of stars are among the best-understood astrophysical objects, the theory of stellar atmospheres plays an important role in the study of many other types of objects. These include planetary nebulae, H II regions, interstellar matter, and objects of interest in high-energy astrophysics, such as accretion disks (close binaries, dwarf novae, cataclysmic variables, quasars, active galactic nuclei), pulsar magnetospheres, and Seyfert galaxies. Finally, as stars provide a laboratory in which plasmas can be studied under more extreme conditions than on earth, the study of stellar atmospheres has strong connections with modern physics. Astronomical observations provided a vital stimulus in the early stages of quantum theory and atomic physics; even today topics such as low-temperature dielectronic recombination develop hand in hand with the interpretation of stellar and nebular spectra. Early work on MHD was similiarly motivated. Many such connections remain to be explored.


Thermodynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans

Thermodynamic processes are inherent to the atmosphere and oceans. Winds
and ocean currents owe their existence to the thermodynamic imbalances that
arise from the differential heating of the Earth's surface and air by the sun.

Author: Judith A. Curry

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780121995706

Category: Science

Page: 471

View: 434

Basic Concepts: Composition, Structure, and State. First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics. Transfer Processes. Thermodynamics of Water. Nucleation and Diffusional Growth. Moist Thermodynamics Processes in the Atmosphere. Static Stability of the Atmosphere and Ocean. Cloud Characteristics and Processes. Ocean Surface Exchanges of Heat and Freshwater. Sea, Ice, Snow, and Glaciers. Thermohaline Processes in the Ocean. Special Topics: Global Energy and Entropy Balances. Thermodynamics Feedbacks in the Climate System. Planetary Atmospheres and Surface Ice. Appendices. Subject Index.

Introduction to Circulating Atmospheres

In Section 2.3 , a numerical weather prediction model was presented as a
frictionless , adiabatic simulation , which allowed the observed state of the
atmosphere to evolve for a short time . As longer forecasts have been demanded
, various ...

Author: I. N. James

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521429351

Category: Science

Page: 422

View: 683

An advanced undergraduate text on the large scale circulation of the atmosphere.

Exoplanet Atmospheres

These include an astonishing range of observed exoplanet masses, semimajor
axes, and orbital eccentricities. We similarly anticipate a huge diversity of
exoplanet atmospheres; the formation and composition of an atmosphere will
depend on ...

Author: Sara Seager

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400835305

Category: Science

Page: 264

View: 628

Over the past twenty years, astronomers have identified hundreds of extrasolar planets--planets orbiting stars other than the sun. Recent research in this burgeoning field has made it possible to observe and measure the atmospheres of these exoplanets. This is the first textbook to describe the basic physical processes--including radiative transfer, molecular absorption, and chemical processes--common to all planetary atmospheres, as well as the transit, eclipse, and thermal phase variation observations that are unique to exoplanets. In each chapter, Sara Seager offers a conceptual introduction, examples that combine the relevant physics equations with real data, and exercises. Topics range from foundational knowledge, such as the origin of atmospheric composition and planetary spectra, to more advanced concepts, such as solutions to the radiative transfer equation, polarization, and molecular and condensate opacities. Since planets vary widely in their atmospheric properties, Seager emphasizes the major physical processes that govern all planetary atmospheres. Moving from first principles to cutting-edge research, Exoplanet Atmospheres is an ideal resource for students and researchers in astronomy and earth sciences, one that will help prepare them for the next generation of planetary science. The first textbook to describe exoplanet atmospheres Illustrates concepts using examples grounded in real data Provides a step-by-step guide to understanding the structure and emergent spectrum of a planetary atmosphere Includes exercises for students

Flammability and Sensitivity of Materials in Oxygen enriched Atmospheres

Herve Barthelemy, Georges Delode, Gerard Vagnard IGNITION OF MATERIALS
IN OXYGEN ATMOSPHERES : COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT TESTING
METHODS FOR RANKING MATERIALS REFERENCE: Barthelemy H., Delode G.
, and ...

Author: Joel M. Stoltzfus

Publisher: ASTM International

ISBN: 9780803114616

Category: Electronic book

Page: 581

View: 318

Annotation Thirty-four papers presented at the symposium of the same name held in Cocoa Beach, Florida, May 1991, begin with a keynote address on combustion fundamentals of low volatility materials in oxygen-enriched atmospheres, and continue in sections on development and evaluation of test methods, ignition and combustion of nonmetals and of metals, analysis of ignition mechanisms, material selection, and miscellaneous topics. Member price, $50.40. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR.


Molecular Complexes in Earth s Planetary Cometary and Interstellar Atmospheres

DIMERIC ABSORPTION IN THE ATMOSPHERE A.A. VIGASIN Obukhov Institute
of Atmospheric Physics, Russian ... Possible spectroscopic manifestations of van
der Waals and hydrogen-bonded molecules in planetary atmospheres are ...

Author: Andrei A. Vigasin

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810232115

Category: Science

Page: 268

View: 217

This book introduces systematically the concept of weakly-bound complexes into the broad field of atmospheric sciences. To fill up the gap between our rapidly expanding knowledge of the individual properties of Van der Waals and hydrogen-bonded molecules, and our understanding of their role in the atmospheric processes, an ensemble of related topics are covered by a team of expert co-authors. The general properties of the weakly bound molecular complexes (or ?clusters?) are discussed, as well as their distribution in the planetary atmospheres. Collision-induced and dimeric absorption and emission are considered in the context of atmospheric spectroscopy. The advanced experimental techniques which enable us to study the spectroscopic features of molecular complexes in the gas phase, or which are adsorbed, are reviewed. The role of molecular complexes in the cometary atmosphere, the Earth mesosphere, and the atmospheres of the giant planets and some of their satellites are also discussed in detail.

Nonequilibrium Processes in the Planetary and Cometary Atmospheres Theory and Applications

Planetary Upper Atmospheres and Ionospheres 2.2.1. EARTH Neutral
atmosphere. The structure and properties of the Earth's upper atmosphere — its
temperature, density, and chemical composition — are determined by absorption
of solar, ...

Author: Mikhail Ya. Marov

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402003783

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 961

This book reviews the approach to the kinetic simulation of nonequilib rium processes in the planetary atmospheres which the authors developed and dealt with since the 1970s. The results of this study, which are focused on the nonequilibrium collisional processes in the atmospheres of planets and comets, are thoroughly reviewed and discussed. Many specific problems of atmospheric modeling, involving numerical evaluation of aeronomic pro cesses, are addressed and compared with the available experimental data. The kinetic approach proved to be especially effective to model the in teraction of the incident shortwave solar radiation with the rarefied gas of planetary upper atmospheres. It involves various processes of photolysis, en ergetic electron impacts, and accompanying numerous chemical reactions, as well as processes occurring in the intermediate ("transition") zones of planetary and cometary gas envelopes. The underlying mathematical treat ment is based on the stochastic approach for the solution of the Boltzmann type equation and implies the development of the efficient algorithms for its computer simulation. Some results of this study were previously summa rized in the monograph issued in Russian (Marov et al. , 1990) and later in the review paper published in Space Science Reviews (Marov et al. , 1996). The basic principles of stochastic simulation were first developed in the field of rarefied gas dynamics and were successfully applied to the solution of some engineering problems of aerodynamics and heat transfer.

The Physics of Atmospheres

5 The middle and upper atmospheres 5.1 Temperature structure Fig. 5.1 shows a
typical cross-section of the temperature structure of the earth's atmosphere from
the surface up to ~100km. The temperature falls with increasing height in the ...

Author: John Houghton

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521011228

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 686

Third edition of John Houghton's acclaimed textbook for advanced undergraduate/graduate courses in atmospheric science.

An Introduction to Planetary Atmospheres

However, in December 1995, the Galileo probe penetrated the Jovian
atmosphere at a latitude of 7°N where a "hot spot" region exists (see Chapter 8)
and measured the winds well below the main cloud decks, up to a depth of 24
bar (Figure ...

Author: Agustin Sanchez-Lavega

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420067354

Category: Science

Page: 629

View: 761

Planetary atmospheres is a relatively new, interdisciplinary subject that incorporates various areas of the physical and chemical sciences, including geophysics, geophysical fluid dynamics, atmospheric science, astronomy, and astrophysics. Providing a much-needed resource for this cross-disciplinary field, An Introduction to Planetary Atmospheres presents current knowledge on atmospheres and the fundamental mechanisms operating on them. The author treats the topics in a comparative manner among the different solar system bodies—what is known as comparative planetology. Based on an established course, this comprehensive text covers a panorama of solar system bodies and their relevant general properties. It explores the origin and evolution of atmospheres, along with their chemical composition and thermal structure. It also describes cloud formation and properties, mechanisms in thin and upper atmospheres, and meteorology and dynamics. Each chapter focuses on these atmospheric topics in the way classically done for the Earth’s atmosphere and summarizes the most important aspects in the field. The study of planetary atmospheres is fundamental to understanding the origin of the solar system, the formation mechanisms of planets and satellites, and the day-to-day behavior and evolution of Earth’s atmosphere. With many interesting real-world examples, this book offers a unified vision of the chemical and physical processes occurring in planetary atmospheres. Ancillaries are available at www.ajax.ehu.es/planetary_atmospheres/



Origin and Evolution of Planetary Atmospheres

Atmospheres. The extreme radiation and plasma environments during the period
of the young active Sun/Stars have important implications for the evolution of
planetary atmospheres and may be responsible that planets with a low gravity
like ...

Author: Helmut Lammer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642320872

Category: Science

Page: 98

View: 452

Based on the author’s own work and results obtained by international teams he coordinated, this SpringerBrief offers a concise discussion of the origin and early evolution of atmospheres of terrestrial planets during the active phase of their host stars, as well as of the environmental conditions which are necessary in order for planets like the Earth to obtain N_2-rich atmospheres. Possible thermal and non-thermal atmospheric escape processes are discussed in a comparative way between the planets in the Solar System and exoplanets. Lastly, a hypothesis for how to test and study the discussed atmosphere evolution theories using future UV transit observations of terrestrial exoplanets within the orbits of dwarf stars is presented.

Theory of Stellar Atmospheres

19.1 EXTENDED ATMOSPHERES In the preceding chapters we have assumed
that stellar atmospheres are stratified in plane-parallel layers. This is a good
approximation for a star on the main sequence because the density scale-height
in ...

Author: Ivan Hubeny

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400852730

Category: Science

Page: 944

View: 384

The most authoritative synthesis of the quantitative spectroscopic analysis of stellar atmospheres This book provides an in-depth and self-contained treatment of the latest advances achieved in quantitative spectroscopic analyses of the observable outer layers of stars and similar objects. Written by two leading researchers in the field, it presents a comprehensive account of both the physical foundations and numerical methods of such analyses. The book is ideal for astronomers who want to acquire deeper insight into the physical foundations of the theory of stellar atmospheres, or who want to learn about modern computational techniques for treating radiative transfer in non-equilibrium situations. It can also serve as a rigorous yet accessible introduction to the discipline for graduate students. Provides a comprehensive, up-to-date account of the field Covers computational methods as well as the underlying physics Serves as an ideal reference book for researchers and a rigorous yet accessible textbook for graduate students An online illustration package is available to professors at press.princeton.edu

Architectural Atmospheres

Thus, in his research for La qualité sonore des espaces publiques Européens (
1995), Pascal Amphoux's particular perspective was determined by the
hypothesis that the sound atmosphere of the city depends on national culture as
well as the ...

Author: Christian Borch

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3038211788

Category: Architecture

Page: 112

View: 521

Architecture is increasingly understood to be a sensual, spatial experience, which means that the experience of buildings and spatial constellations is also a perception of atmospheres that are rated as positive or negative. Architects, planners, investors, and politicians must produce effects such as these according to intersubjective and communicable criteria, and not intuitively or randomly. Architectural Atmospheres addresses the growing awareness of the atmospheric dimension of architecture and provides a current, programmatic discussion of this topic. What possibilities does this approach open to architecture, what value does this knowledge have? Three essays and a conversation lead a cross-discipline discussion on the impact of architecture, and contribute to the debate first initiated by Peter Zumthor. The texts are accompanied bythirty-five color images that capture architectural moods in a variety of ways. Gernot Böhme is Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at Darmstadt Technical University and Director of the Institute for Practical Philosophy, e.V., Ipph, in Darmstadt, Germany. Christian Borch is Professor of Political Sociology at the Department of Management, Politics, and Philosophy, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark. Olafur Eliasson is a Danish-Icelandic artist. Eliasson incessantly explores our modes of perceiving. His work spans photography, installation, sculpture, and film. Juhani Pallasmaa is one of Finland's most distinguished architects and architectural thinkers.