Planetary Atmospheres





Category: Planets


View: 414

U S Supplementary Atmospheres

CLASSIFICATION Hq AFCRL , OAR ( CRU ) Unclassified United States Air Force
26. GROUP Bedford , Mass . 3. REPORT TITLE U. S. Supplementary
Atmospheres 4.

Author: Kenneth S. W. Champion



Category: Atmosphere

Page: 24

View: 474

A radical new set of model atmospheres was prepared which represent typical atmospheric conditions for summer and winter at various latitudes up to 60 deg and which above 120 km are also functions of time of day and solar flux. These atmospheres connect at 80 km with Cole and Kantor's winter atmospheres for 30, 45, and 60 deg latitude, with their tropical atmosphere for 15 deg latitude and with their summer atmospheres for 30, 45, and 60 deg latitude. The three winter atmospheres merge at a common point at 120 km, with a density 50 percent above U. S. Standard 1962. The three summer atmospheres, plus the tropical atmosphere, merge at 120 km, with a density 20 percent below the U. S. Standard. In addition, a mean atmosphere has been prepared between 80 and 120 km which, in effect, constitutes a revision of the Standard. This atmosphere represents an average over all conditions, but also can be used for spring and fall at latitudes of 30 deg and higher. Each atmosphere has been calculated with a value of the acceleration due to gravity appropriate to the latitude. Starting from the three common points at 120 km are three sets of atmospheres. Each set consists of a number of atmospheres corresponding to exospheric temperatures lying between 600 and 2100K. At the higher altitudes, the seasonal dependence disappears and the variation is diurnal and with solar flux. These atmospheres are calculated using the acceleration due to gravity for a latitude of 45 deg. (Author)

Supplemental Atmospheres

3 DESCRIPTION A mean annual atmosphere rather than seasonal atmospheres
was adopted for 15°N since the temperature-height structure in the tropics
remains relatively constant throughout the year. The largest seasonal variability
in ...

Author: A. Court



Category: Atmosphere

Page: 21

View: 805

Atmospheres typical of the tropics (15 degrees N), sub-tropics (30 degrees N), and mid-latitudes (45 degrees N) were prepared as members of a family of atmospheres supplemental to the 1962 US Standard Atmosphere; they provide information on latitudinal and seasonal changes in atmospheric structure up to 90 km. Temperature gradients for various segments are linear with geopotential height. Humidity is incorporated into the lowermost 10 km of each atmosphere. Figures and tables depict temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and density, The atmospheres are mutually consistent; zonal wind profiles computed from the geostrophic wind equation at selected pressure heights compare favorably with existing rawinsonde and Meteorological Rocket Network wind observations. (Author).

Theory of Stellar Atmospheres

B. Gustafsson. A Feautrier-type method for model atmospheres including
convection. Astr. Astrophys., 10, 187, 1971. B. Gustafsson. Fundamental
parameters and models of stellar atmospheres. In Hayes et al. [464], page 303. B.

Author: Ivan Hubeny

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691163294

Category: Science

Page: 944

View: 262

This book provides an in-depth and self-contained treatment of the latest advances achieved in quantitative spectroscopic analyses of the observable outer layers of stars and similar objects. Written by two leading researchers in the field, it presents a comprehensive account of both the physical foundations and numerical methods of such analyses. The book is ideal for astronomers who want to acquire deeper insight into the physical foundations of the theory of stellar atmospheres, or who want to learn about modern computational techniques for treating radiative transfer in non-equilibrium situations. It can also serve as a rigorous yet accessible introduction to the discipline for graduate students. Provides a comprehensive, up-to-date account of the field Covers computational methods as well as the underlying physics Serves as an ideal reference book for researchers and a rigorous yet accessible textbook for graduate students An online illustration package is available to professors at

On Electric Atmospheres

atmosphere of elber , surrounded by another of phlogiston . . If a light body ,
suspended by a filament of filk , be brought within the external part of either of
these atmospheres , it will be attracted , ' till it comes to the internal atmosphere ,
which ...

Author: Edward Peart



Category: Electricity

Page: 81

View: 824

Exoplanet Atmospheres

This is the first textbook to describe the basic physical processes--including radiative transfer, molecular absorption, and chemical processes--common to all planetary atmospheres, as well as the transit, eclipse, and thermal phase ...

Author: Sara Seager

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400835305

Category: Science

Page: 264

View: 671

Over the past twenty years, astronomers have identified hundreds of extrasolar planets--planets orbiting stars other than the sun. Recent research in this burgeoning field has made it possible to observe and measure the atmospheres of these exoplanets. This is the first textbook to describe the basic physical processes--including radiative transfer, molecular absorption, and chemical processes--common to all planetary atmospheres, as well as the transit, eclipse, and thermal phase variation observations that are unique to exoplanets. In each chapter, Sara Seager offers a conceptual introduction, examples that combine the relevant physics equations with real data, and exercises. Topics range from foundational knowledge, such as the origin of atmospheric composition and planetary spectra, to more advanced concepts, such as solutions to the radiative transfer equation, polarization, and molecular and condensate opacities. Since planets vary widely in their atmospheric properties, Seager emphasizes the major physical processes that govern all planetary atmospheres. Moving from first principles to cutting-edge research, Exoplanet Atmospheres is an ideal resource for students and researchers in astronomy and earth sciences, one that will help prepare them for the next generation of planetary science. The first textbook to describe exoplanet atmospheres Illustrates concepts using examples grounded in real data Provides a step-by-step guide to understanding the structure and emergent spectrum of a planetary atmosphere Includes exercises for students

Furnace Atmospheres and Carbon Control

Committee on Furnace Atmospheres. TT ( 1 ) . ... 70 , 71 Class 101 atmospheres
applications ( T ) . . . . . . . . . . 18 ... atmospheres ( T ) Class 104 atmospheres ( T )
Class 105 atmospheres ( T ) Class 106 atmospheres Class 112 atmospheres .

Author: American Society for Metals. Committee on Furnace Atmospheres



Category: Metallurgical furnaces

Page: 200

View: 867

Elements of Chemistry

05 , 3 atmospheres at 68° , 4 atmospheres at 85° , 5 atmospheres at 98° , and 6
atmospheres at 110° . Sulphuretted ... 8 of an atmosphere , so that the liquid
allowed to evaporate in the air would not solidify as carbonic acid does . The
tension ...

Author: Thomas Graham



Category: Chemistry

Page: 632

View: 140

Flammability and Sensitivity of Materials in Oxygen enriched Atmospheres

Author: Dennis W. Schroll

Publisher: ASTM International

ISBN: 9780803109988

Category: Electronic book

Page: 448

View: 861

Proceeding held at Churchill College, Cambridge, England, April 1987. A reference for both the skilled and the uninitiated in the concepts and practices for the design and maintenance of all types of oxygen systems. Cov five areas: ignition of metals, nonmetal ignition, material selection for oxygen.

Chemical Reactions in Urban Atmospheres

atmosphere by making certain , necessarily drastic , simplifying assumptions ( 14
, 15 ) . We estimated that in a column of air extending from the earth ' s surface to
the inversion level , about 1 km , the production rate of excited organic ...

Author: Warren Symposium

Publisher: Elsevier Publishing Company


Category: Air

Page: 287

View: 744

Modelling of Stellar Atmospheres

Much work remains to be done on how best to incorporate the effects of
pulsations into atmosphere models . • Chemical flows : We still do not have a
clear understanding of how to calculate correctly the consequences of diffusion
under the ...

Author: International Astronomical Union. Symposium



Category: Stars

Page: 443

View: 462

Theory of the Stellar Atmospheres

At the same time we should inquire into the information required to specify the
state of the atmosphere . 1 . Distribution functions - From a rather broad view we
are attempting , in solving the stellar atmospheres problem , to specify certain ...

Author: Dimitri Mihalas



Category: Stars

Page: 312

View: 533