Bone Formation

An easy-to handle and to read work, with concise reviews that are extensively referenced, the chapters in this book are written by internationally known authorities.

Author: Felix Bronner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1447137779

Category: Medical

Page: 160

View: 426

Bone research in recent years has generated much new knowledge, in large measure because of the broad public health implications of osteoporosis and related bone disorders. Bone Formation, the first in a series entitled Topics in Bone Biology, evaluates this new information and formulates novel insights and hypotheses within the broad framework of current knowledge. An easy-to handle and to read work, with concise reviews that are extensively referenced, the chapters in this book are written by internationally known authorities. Particular emphasis is on osteoporosis and related disorders of diminished bone formation. Among the general topics treated is a chapter on biomechanical aspects of bone formation, not often considered in relation to diseases of bone formation. The book constitutes essential reading for those entering the field of bone biology and those who wish to become familiar with up-to-date information in a particular area of bone research.

Building Bones Bone Formation and Development in Anthropology

In this volume, studies of bone growth and development illustrate new methods and insights that enhance the anthropological understanding of skeletal variation.

Author: Christopher J. Percival

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107122783

Category: Science

Page: 332

View: 990

Bone is the tissue most frequently recovered archaeologically and is the material most commonly studied by biological anthropologists, who are interested in how skeletons change shape during growth and across evolutionary time. This volume brings together a range of contemporary studies of bone growth and development to highlight how cross-disciplinary research and new methods can enhance our anthropological understanding of skeletal variation. The novel use of imaging techniques from developmental biology, advanced sequencing methods from genetics, and perspectives from evolutionary developmental biology improve our ability to understand the bases of modern human and primate variation. Animal models can also be used to provide a broad biological perspective to the systematic study of humans. This volume is a testament to the drive of anthropologists to understand biological and evolutionary processes that underlie changes in bone morphology and illustrates the continued value of incorporating multiple perspectives within anthropological inquiry.



Induction of Bone Formation in Primates

The product of 20 years of study, Induction of Bone Formation in Primates: The Transforming Growth Factor- sums up editor Ugo Ripamonti's research into the osteogenic a

Author: Ugo Ripamonti

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482216175

Category: Medical

Page: 212

View: 685

The effects of the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) family on bone formation are well documented, but the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta (β) isoforms are much less studied. The product of 20 years of study, Induction of Bone Formation in Primates: The Transforming Growth Factor-β3 sums up editor Ugo Ripamonti’s research into the osteogenic activity of the three mammalian TGF-β isoforms, particularly in primates. It explores how the mammalian TGF-β isoforms have the potential to shed light on the apparent redundancy of bone induction signaling. The book unearths the profound and important bone inductive activity of the TGF-β3 isoform. It includes accounts of extensive research in non-human primates from craniofacial tissue regeneration, heterotopic tissue induction, and chapters on periodontal tissue regeneration and synergistic induction of bone formation. It also discusses the future clinical role of the TGF-β isoform, including in human studies. This book contributes to the fascinating history of BMP and TGF-β research at the intersection of molecular biology, tissue induction, bone regeneration, and craniofacial surgery. It provides a revolutionary awakening to new possibilities in skeletal reconstruction, tissue engineering, and molecular and cellular biology.

The Geometric Induction of Bone Formation

The Geometric Induction of Bone Formation describes new biomimetic biomaterials that offer mechanistic osteogenic surfaces for the autonomous and spontaneous induction of bone formation without the addition of osteogenic soluble molecular ...

Author: Ugo Ripamonti

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0429515308

Category: Medical

Page: 258

View: 371

The Geometric Induction of Bone Formation describes new biomimetic biomaterials that offer mechanistic osteogenic surfaces for the autonomous and spontaneous induction of bone formation without the addition of osteogenic soluble molecular signals of the transforming growth factor-β supergene family. The chapters frame our understanding of regenerative medicine in primate species, including humans. The goal is to unravel the fundamental biological mechanisms of bone formation unique to non-human and human primates. The broad target audience dovetails with several disciplines both in the academic and private biotech sectors primarily involved in molecular biology, tissue biology, tissue engineering, biomaterial science, and reconstructive, orthopedic, plastic, and dental surgery. Key Features Includes outstanding images of undecalcified whole mounted sections Summarizes non-human primate research – ideal for clinical translation Reviews methods for creating devices capable of making bone autonomously, i.e. an intrinsically osteo-inductive bioreactor and/or biomaterial Describes the spontaneous induction of bone formation including a whole spectrum of tissue biology, from basic molecular biology to clear-cut morphology and pre-clinical application in non-human primate species Intended for audiences in both academic research and the biotech industry

Autonomic Nervous System

In this chapter, we review current knowledge about the role of the autonomic nervous system in abnormal bone formation and its association with clinical diseases such as heterotopic ossification, ossification of the posterior longitudinal ...

Author: He Ji-Ye

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN: 0128079886

Category: Medical

Page: 464

View: 684

Bone remodeling is thought to be regulated by many factors including nutritional status, humoral factors, and biomechanical stress. However, the involvement of the autonomic nervous system, mainly the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), in the modulation of bone remodeling is beginning to receive more attention. Neural innervation of bone has been demonstrated. Both experimental and clinical evidence has indicated the involvement of autonomic nervous system regulation in bone metabolism. The sympathetic neural pathway is so far the only identified link between the potent leptin-dependent central control and bone cells. An intact autonomic nervous system contributes to the maintenance of healthy bone tissue. Conversely, disturbance of the autonomic nervous system could induce abnormal bone remodeling. In this chapter, we review current knowledge about the role of the autonomic nervous system in abnormal bone formation and its association with clinical diseases such as heterotopic ossification, ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, postmenopausal osteoporosis, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, complex regional pain syndrome, Charcot neuro-osteoarthropathy, unloading-induced osteoporosis, central or peripheral nervous system damage, and depression-induced osteoporosis. Understanding the mechanism of sympathetic neural signaling in bone remodeling may shed light on a potential treatment avenue for the prevention or reversal of bone loss.

Electric Stimulation of Bone Growth and Repair

The first European Symposium on Electric Stimulation of Bone Growth and Repair was held in Brussels on May 20, 1976.

Author: F. Burny

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642811930

Category: Medical

Page: 93

View: 606

The first European Symposium on Electric Stimulation of Bone Growth and Repair was held in Brussels on May 20, 1976. The meeting was sponsored by the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, the Interdisciplinary Bone Biomechanics Unit of the University of Brussels, and the Department of Applied Electronics, Chalmers University of Technology, Goteborg. The aims of the Symposium were to create and organize communica tion between European laboratories in the field of electric stimulation of healing processes and generally to promote international collaboration in this field. The Organizing Committee Spring 1978 F. BURNY, Brussels E. HERBST, Goteborg M. HINSENKAMP, Brussels Contents Electric Stimulation of Bone Growth and Repair: A Review of Different Stimulation Methods E. HERBST. With 5 Figures . . . . •. ••. . •. . . . . . . . . . . •. . . . . . . . . . . Four-Point Measurement of the Impedance of Bone in Vivo W. SANSEN, F. De DIJCKER, S. STAN, and J. C. MULIER t"Jith 4 Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . •. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . •. . . . . . . . . 15 In Vitro Study of Electric Impedance of Bone B. DURAND, P. CHRISTEL, and J. ASSAILLY. With 5 Figures . . . . 19 Achievements and Discrepancies in Understanding Bone Electric Phenomena T. CIESZYNSKI. With 2 Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Physicochemical Effect of an Electric Potential on Bone Growth R. WOLLAST, M. HINSENKAMP, and F. BURNY. With 4 Figures . . . • 29 Influence of Magnetic Fields on Growth and Regeneration in Organ Culture H. GERBER, J. CORDEY, and S. M. PERREN. With 2 Figures . . . . . .

A COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF BONE FORMATION IN THE CRANIAL VAULT USING A REACTION DIFFUSION STRAIN MODEL

We propose a mechanobiological model for the formation of cranial vault bones by coupling the reaction-diffusion model with structural mechanics. The mathematical formulation was solved using the finite volume method.

Author: Chanyoung Lee

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page:

View: 798

Bones of the mouse cranial vault are formed by differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts, a process that is primarily understood to be controlled by a cascade of reactions between extracellular molecules and cells. We assume that the process can be modeled using Turings reaction-diffusion model, a mathematical model describing the pattern formation controlled by two interacting molecules (activator and inhibitor). In addition to the processes modeled by reaction-diffusion equations, we propose that mechanical stimuli of the cells due to growth of the underlying brain contribute significantly to the process of cell differentiation in cranial vault development. Structural analysis of the surface of the brain is conducted to explore the effects of the mechanical strain on bone formation. We propose a mechanobiological model for the formation of cranial vault bones by coupling the reaction-diffusion model with structural mechanics. The mathematical formulation was solved using the finite volume method. The computational domain and model parameters are determined using a large collection of experimental data that provides precise three-dimensional (3D) measures of mouse cranial geometry and cranial vault bone formation for specific embryonic time points. The results of this study suggest that mechanical strain contributes information to specific aspects of bone formation. Our mechanobiological model predicts some key features of cranial vault bone formation that were verified by experimental observations including the relative location of ossification centers of the individual vault bones, the pattern of cranial vault bone growth over time, and the position of cranial vault sutures.

Bone Formation

... 139 Androgen receptors , 24 Androgens , 32 , 144-5 Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency , 126 Animal studies bone formation , 109-10 ...

Author: Felix Bronner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781852337179

Category: Medical

Page: 160

View: 985

Bone research in recent years has generated much new knowledge, in large measure because of the broad public health implications of osteoporosis and related bone disorders. Bone Formation, the first in a series entitled Topics in Bone Biology, evaluates this new information and formulates novel insights and hypotheses within the broad framework of current knowledge. An easy-to handle and to read work, with concise reviews that are extensively referenced, the chapters in this book are written by internationally known authorities. Particular emphasis is on osteoporosis and related disorders of diminished bone formation. Among the general topics treated is a chapter on biomechanical aspects of bone formation, not often considered in relation to diseases of bone formation. The book constitutes essential reading for those entering the field of bone biology and those who wish to become familiar with up-to-date information in a particular area of bone research.

Building Bones Bone Formation and Development in Anthropology

As it has been described previously (Enlow and Hans, 2008), the subadult maxilla shows bone resorption indicating a backward growth while bone growth is ...

Author: Christopher J. Percival

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108210627

Category: Social Science

Page:

View: 814

Bone is the tissue most frequently recovered archaeologically and is the material most commonly studied by biological anthropologists, who are interested in how skeletons change shape during growth and across evolutionary time. This volume brings together a range of contemporary studies of bone growth and development to highlight how cross-disciplinary research and new methods can enhance our anthropological understanding of skeletal variation. The novel use of imaging techniques from developmental biology, advanced sequencing methods from genetics, and perspectives from evolutionary developmental biology improve our ability to understand the bases of modern human and primate variation. Animal models can also be used to provide a broad biological perspective to the systematic study of humans. This volume is a testament to the drive of anthropologists to understand biological and evolutionary processes that underlie changes in bone morphology and illustrates the continued value of incorporating multiple perspectives within anthropological inquiry.

Amelogenins Multifaceted Proteins for Dental and Bone Formation and Repair

Ultimately, treatment with enamel matrix derivatives, by yet unclear mechanisms, appears to favor bone formation around teeth [49,52].

Author: Michel Goldberg

Publisher: Bentham Science Publishers

ISBN: 9781608051717

Category: Medical

Page: 245

View: 379

"This volume is the 1st in a series of Ebooks that bridges the gap between advances in science and clinical practice in odontology. Recent advances in biology, materials science and tissue engineering are increasingly viewed as being of enormous clinical p"

A New Potential Mechanism for Osteoblast Initiated Lamellar Bone Formation During Bone Remodelling

Throughout one's life a person's bone constantly goes through bone resorption and bone formation in a process called bone remodelling.

Author: John Yuen

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 40

View: 918

Throughout one's life a person's bone constantly goes through bone resorption and bone formation in a process called bone remodelling. Bone diseases such as osteoporosis are caused by a dysregulation of this bone remodelling. Bone resorption is well understood, but the molecular mechanism and biology of bone formation is not fully understood. It is known that osteoblasts (bone forming cells) form a 5-10 um layer of osteoid (bone matrix) and calcify (mineralize) it to form bone. However, the exact process by which osteoblasts calcify osteoid is not fully understood. In this study we show that it is possible for lamellar bone formation to occur via a two step "seed-grow" mechanism. In this mechanism osteoblasts first seed osteoid with many small mineral crystals, after which the seed crystals go on to grow and calcify osteoid to form the final bone tissue. The seed crystals grow by taking calcium and phosphate from the circulating blood that bathes osteoid and therefore do not require osteoblasts for mineral growth past the initial seeding step. The seed-grow mechanism was tested via a trabecular bone block model system, where blocks of bovine trabecular bone were decalcified (demineralized) to recreate the initial osteoid material (bone collagen blocks). Bone collagen blocks were then artificially seeded with many small crystals via a previously developed technique and incubated in adult bovine serum without osteoblasts. The bone collagen blocks recalcified (remineralized) and hardened, eventually forming a complete, freestanding mineral continuum--a characteristic of the mineral phase in normal bone.


Dynamics of Bone and Cartilage Metabolism

Local signaling that results in bone formation during remodeling takes place in several ways. Growth factors released from resorbed bone matrix can ...

Author: Markus J. Seibel

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080456263

Category: Medical

Page: 920

View: 445

This updated edition is a comprehensive treatise that spans the complete range of basic biochemistry of bone and cartilage components to the clinical evaluation of disease markers in bone and joint disorders. With contributions from over 75 international experts, Dynamics of Bone and Cartilage Metabolism, Second Edition, is indispensable reading for those involved in skeletal research as well as for rheumatologists, endocrinologists, clinical biochemists, and other clinical disciplines participating in the management of patients with bone and cartilage diseases. Part I provides an up-to-date account of current knowledge of the structure, biosynthesis and molecular biology of the major tissue components Part II covers the organizational structure and cellular metabolism of bone and cartilage Part III deals with the utility of components specific to bone and cartilage as biomarkers of health and disease

Principles of Bone Regeneration

This exciting new volume details the convergence of the different experimental and clinical approaches designed for the study and treatment of bone healing in its diverse forms and under varying conditions.

Author: Jona J. Sela

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461420598

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 156

View: 947

Principles of Bone Regeneration is a timely publication that addresses the modern aspects of bone healing and repair. This exciting new volume details the convergence of the different experimental and clinical approaches designed for the study and treatment of bone healing in its diverse forms and under varying conditions. Bone healing is affected by a multitude of genetic, environmental, mechanical, cellular and endocrine variables which eventually lead to changes in gene expression that enhance the guided action of osteoblasts (and chondroblasts) to lay down bone that restores, or even improves, the skeletal load bearing capacity. Recent breakthroughs in understanding the regulatory aspects of bone formation and resorption, in both research and clinical arenas offer new modalities to induce, enhances and guide repair processes in bone for the benefit of millions of patients with conditions such as nonunion fractures, critical size defects, orthodontic tooth movement, periodontal bone loss, intraosseous implants and deformed bones.


Novel Strontium Fortified Calcium Salt for Enhancing Bone Formation

This dissertation, "Novel Strontium Fortified Calcium Salt for Enhancing Bone Formation: an in Vitro and in Vivo Large Animal Model Study" by Zhaoyang, Li, 李朝陽, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and ...

Author: Zhaoyang Li

Publisher: Open Dissertation Press

ISBN: 9781374665316

Category:

Page:

View: 369

This dissertation, "Novel Strontium Fortified Calcium Salt for Enhancing Bone Formation: an in Vitro and in Vivo Large Animal Model Study" by Zhaoyang, Li, 李朝陽, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: Abstract of thesis entitled "Novel strontium fortified calcium salt for enhancing bone formation: An in vitro and in vivo large animal model study" Submitted by Zhaoyang LI for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at The University of Hong Kong in July, 2007 Strontium is a mineral that closely resembles calcium and traces of strontium can be found in various foods and in drinking water. Most importantly, the use of strontium in the treatment of osteoporosis has been one of the most exciting prospects observed during the last 20 years. This element in the form of a ranelate compound has become increasingly popular in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis by concomitantly inhibiting bone resorption and enhancing bone formation. Since in this drug, strontium acts as the sole active component, strontium compound is postulated to have a favorable effect for osteoporosis treatment. The new bone formed under the influence of strontium therapy might not have been of high quality, so the dosage of strontium that provides the balance of safety and efficacy need further optimization. Previously, we had developed a novel strontium fortified calcium phosphate compound. The incorporation of strontium into calcium phosphate increased the solubility of this calcium supplementing compound and therefore increased the absorbability of calcium. Calcium, being an essential bone healthy nutrient, has a central role in the efficacy of all osteoporosis treatment. We hypothesized that, with the supplementation of this novel compound, calcium will supply nutrition for bone while strontium will display synergistic effects for enhancing bone formation activity. This is the first study to evaluate low dosage strontium combined with calcium for enhancing bone formation in a large animal model of osteoporosis. Oral administration of strontium fortified calcium compound significantly increased expression of IGF-I and Runx2 in bone matrix. Both IGF-I and Runx2 levels were positively associated with the bone mineral apposition rate (MAR). The anabolic effect of low dosage of strontium was further confirmed by the increase in bone mineral density (BMD) and bone volume of the lumbar spine. Despite the fact that the overall mechanical properties were not improved except for a slight increase in fracture toughness of single trabecula, the improvement in the above two parameters of MAR and BMD clearly demonstrated the activity of low dosage strontium for enhancing bone formation. Another important finding was the effect of combination treatment on bone quality. After oral administration of strontium fortified calcium compound, strontium concentration was much higher in cancellous bone than that in cortical bone, and strontium mainly deposited in newly formed bone. The chemical composition of bone mineral crystals of new bone did not change with the incorporation of strontium, which corresponded well with the in vitro results. These results together with histomorphometric analysis substantially confirmed the safety of low dosage of strontium combined with calcium treatment. In conclusion, low dosage strontium combined with calcium treatment considerably increased bone matrix osteogenic factors expression, stimulated new bone formation and increased bone mass without changing the composition and structure of bone mineral. Although significant improvement in bone mechanical property was not


Indian Hedgehog Stimulates Chondrocyte Hypertrophic Differentiation in Endochondral Bone Formation

This dissertation, "Indian Hedgehog Stimulates Chondrocyte Hypertrophic Differentiation in Endochondral Bone Formation" by Jun, Li, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative ...

Author: Jun Li

Publisher:

ISBN: 9781361421444

Category:

Page:

View: 765

This dissertation, "Indian Hedgehog Stimulates Chondrocyte Hypertrophic Differentiation in Endochondral Bone Formation" by Jun, Li, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: Abstract of thesis entitled Indian hedgehog Stimulates Chondrocyte Hypertrophic Differentiation in Endochondral Bone Formation submitted by Li, Jun for the degree of Doctor Philosophy at the University of Hong Kong in November 2007 Endochondral bone formation or ossification (EO) occurs in the growth plate in the axial and appendicle bones during skeletal development. The growth plate, a cartilage tissue, is composed of longitudinal chondrocyte columns and located at the end of long bones. Each column is developed from one single chondrocyte, which undergoes proliferation, hypertrophic defferentiation and apoptosis leading to bone formation. Therefore EO is a continual process of chondrocyte differentiation. This process is controlled and tightly regulated by a variety of genes and cartilage matrix components. Indian hedgehog (Ihh), a polarity-segment gene, plays a pivotal role in EO. It is normally expressed in prehypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plate. Ihh null mice show a severe dwarfism and Ihh mutation in human is characterized by brachydactyly. The previous studies have shown that Ihh is stimulates of chondrocyte and osteoblast proliferation. Through its regulation of chondrocyte proliferation, Ihh indirectly affects the localization of the onset of iii chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation. Ihh also determines whether bone formation occurs in the EO. However, it is not known whether Ihh has a role in the process of chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation. In order to investigate the potential roles of Ihh on in the chondrocyte hypertrophic +/c differentiation and EO, a mouse model Col10a1;Z/Ihh) was made in which Ihh is ectopically overexpressed in the hypertrophic chondrocyte zone under the control of the Col10a1 promoter. In order to achieve hypertrophic chondrocyte-specific expression of Ihh, two mouse models were used: a transgenic mouse (Z/Ihh) carrying a cre-recombinase inducible Ihh expression vector (pKE18) and a second mouse expressing +/c cre-recombinase under the control of the Col10a1 promoter (Col10a1 ). The Cre protein can recognize and excise the sequence between loxPs and recombine loxP DNA sequences. It is widely used to generate animal models carrying inducible transgenes. The Cre/loxPs system can induce site-specific transgene overexpression or site-specific gene deletion. In this study, cre/loxPs system induced the overexpression of Ihh specifically in the Col10a1-expressing chondrocytes. ES cell transfection was used to select for different levels of expression of pKE18 transgene. Twenty single-copy pKE18 transfected ES colonies were selected and four pKE18(Z/Ihh) transgenic mouse lines were generated. In the Col10α1-cre;Ihh mice, even though there is an intact Ihh/PTHrP negative feedback loop, the ectopically overexpressed Ihh resulted in an increased length of the proliferating zone and hypertrophic zone in the growth plate. This extension is iv due to increased cell number in the prehypertrophic zone and hypertrophic zone, as proven by counting the cells in these zones in the double transgenic mice. The prehypertrophic and hypertrophic zones are marked by expression of Col10a1. Col10a1 expression level was unchanged. These phenotypes demonstrated that Ihh can stimulate chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation in EO. This conclusion is supported by