So it does seem that Descartes believed confusion in one's ideas does not bar validity in one's inferences. The account of confusion I will give later in ...

Author: Joseph L. CAMP

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674029178

Category: Philosophy

Page: 256

View: 174

Everyone has mistaken one thing for another, such as a stranger for an acquaintance. A person who has mistaken two things, Joseph Camp argues, even on a massive scale, is still capable of logical thought. In order to make that idea precise, one needs a logic of confused thought that is blind to the distinction between the objects that have been confused. Confused thought and language cannot be characterized as true or false even though reasoning conducted in such language can be classified as valid or invalid. To the extent that philosophers have addressed this issue at all, they take it for granted that confusion is a kind of ambiguity. Camp rejects this notion; his fundamental claim is that confusion is not a mental state. To attribute confusion to someone is to take up a paternalistic stance in evaluating his reasoning. Camp proposes a novel characterization of confusion, and then demonstrates its fruitfulness with several applications in the history of philosophy and the history of science.


Confusion! Yes my life has been filled with confusion and it probably will continue, but any confusion as to my gender has finally come to an end.

Author: J. Sarah Duflo

Publisher: iUniverse

ISBN: 1440168458

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 616

View: 744

The life of a young girl raised as a male. her struggles in life and society to become the woman she was born as. this book tells of her struggles from childhood to adult and the struggles as a special Forces Officer in the Navy.

Warning Confusion and Deception in the Church

Why is there so much confusion Regarding the teachings of the Bible? The devil is in virtually all of the books of the New Testament. In the book of James, ...

Author: Terry Case

Publisher: AuthorHouse

ISBN: 1524691771

Category: Religion

Page: 208

View: 817

Gods Word has much to say to believers but will confound the unbelievers. Confusion has entered the church to deceive believers from Gods truth. The church is not the same when many preachers are proclaiming lies, which is false doctrine. Many denominations have caused this confusion to be sustained as truth through their people for many past generations. People think preachers only proclaim truth. When you tell a lie long enough, you believe it. Some denominations tell the world that Gods Word is full of errors and contradictions, which is what Satan wants to cause more deception. If you do what God wants, you will have peace with God. If you do less than what is expected, God will take your talent and give it to someone else. If you are available, God will meet you there. The Bible does command you to commit your way to the Lord and follow him.

Confusion of Tongues

Normative disagreements involve a confusion of tongues, like that which thwarted the construction of the Tower of Babel, and the hope to raise ourselves ...

Author: Associate Professor of Philosophy Stephen Finlay, (Pr

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190649631


Page: 288

View: 864

Can normative words like "good," "ought," and "reason" be defined in entirely non-normative terms? Confusion of Tongues argues that they can, advancing a new End-Relational theory of the meaning of this language as providing the best explanation of the many different ways it is ordinarily used. Philosophers widely maintain that analyzing normative language as describing facts about relations cannot account for special features of particularly moral and deliberative uses of normative language, but Stephen Finlay argues that the End-Relational theory systematically explains these on the basis of a single fundamental principle of conversational pragmatics. These challenges comprise the central problems of metaethics, including the connection between normative judgment and motivation, the categorical character of morality, the nature of intrinsic value, and the possibility of normative disagreement. Finlay's linguistic analysis has deep implications for the metaphysics, epistemology, and psychology of morality, as well as for the nature and possibility of normative ethical theory. Most significantly it supplies a nuanced answer to the ancient Euthyphro Question of whether we desire things because we judge them good, or vice versa. Normative speech and thought may ultimately be just a manifestation of our nature as intelligent animals motivated by contingent desires for various conflicting ends.

The Evolution of Confusion

"Not knowing is what brings on confusion. While security is an ordered, learned system — confusion is disorder. Security is something understood as ...

Author: Meiner

Publisher: Xulon Press

ISBN: 1615797459

Category: Fiction

Page: 452

View: 525

The Confusion between Art and Design

Hence, the confusion and anarchy pervading art in the course of the last century is also the main reason for the current confusion between art and design.

Author: Tsion Avital

Publisher: Vernon Press

ISBN: 1622732057

Category: Art

Page: 428

View: 300

In the past century the borders have blurred between art and design. Designers, artists, aestheticians, curators, art and design critics, historians and students all seem confused about these borders. Figurative painting was reduced to graphic design while still being called 'art'. Figurative sculpture was reduced to nonfunctional industrial design while being called 'sculpture'. This fundamental blunder resulted from total misunderstanding of the concept of "abstraction" by the founders of modern art. Comprehensive analysis shows that so-called "abstract art" is neither abstract nor art, but a very simple, even trivial, kind of design. In this book the prehistoric, philosophical, logical, historic and religious sources of the confusion between art and design are analyzed. A new and coherent conceptual framework is proposed, to distinguish between art and design. Nearly one hundred distinctions, contradistinctions and comparisons between art and design are presented, showing clearly that they are totally independent domains. Philosophy of art books are written by philosophers for philosophers, not for artists and designers; therefore they are irrelevant for the latter, especially for students who normally lack the necessary conceptual training. This book is not only for theoreticians but for art and design practitioners at all levels. This is a new kind of book: an illustrated philosophical book for the art and design world, which can make philosophical knowledge accessible and useful for solving real problems for designers and artists who are mostly visual rather than conceptual thinkers. The book contains over two hundred images; thus art and design people can easily follow the arguments and reasoning presented in this book in their own language; images. Lack of distinction between art and design harms both. Design is contaminated by the ills of modern art, while modern art cannot recover from its current stagnation whilst under the illusion that it is actually art rather than design.

Turning Confusion into Clarity

It's very important to understand what creates samsara, also called the realm of confusion. Samsara does not arise from external circumstances.

Author: Yongey Mingyur

Publisher: Shambhala Publications

ISBN: 0834829754

Category: Religion

Page: 416

View: 733

By offering detailed instruction and friendly, inspiring advice for those embarking on the Tibetan Buddhist foundation practices, Yongey Mingyur Rinpoche provides gentle yet thorough commentary, companionship, and inspiration for committing to the Vajrayana path.

Regulating Confusion

Samuel Johnson and the Crowd Thomas Reinert. REGULATING CONFUSION REGULATING CONFUSION Samuel Johnson and the Crowd THOMAS REINERT Duke.

Author: Thomas Reinert

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822382423

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 205

View: 157

With the urbanization of eighteenth-century English society, moral philosophers became preoccupied with the difference between individual and crowd behavior. In so doing, they set the stage for a form of political thought divorced from traditional moral reflection. In Regulating Confusion Thomas Reinert places Samuel Johnson in the context of this development and investigates Johnson’s relation to an emerging modernity. Ambivalent about the disruption, confusion, perplexity, and boundless variety apparent in the London of his day, Johnson was committed to the conventions of moral reflection but also troubled by the pressure to adopt the perspective of the crowd and the language of social theory. Regulating Confusion explores the consequences of his ambivalence and his attempt to order the chaos. It discusses his critique of moral generalizations, concept of moral reflection as a symbolic gesture, and account of what happens to the notion of character when individuals, having lost the support of moral convention, become faces in a crowd. Reflecting generally on the relationship between skepticism and political ideology, Reinert also discusses Johnson’s political skepticism and the forms of speculation and action it authorized. Challenging prevalent psychologizing and humanistic interpretations, Regulating Confusion leaves behind the re-emergent view of Johnson as a reactionary ideologue and presents him in a theoretically sophisticated context. It offers his style of skepticism as a model of poise in the face of confusion about the nature of political truth and personal responsibility and demonstrates his value as a resource for students of culture struggling with contemporary debates about the relationship between literature and politics.

The Great Confusion in Indian Affairs

As a consequence, Native Americans found themselves placed in a strange kind of confusion in the early years of the twentieth century.

Author: Tom Holm

Publisher: University of Texas Press

ISBN: 0292779577

Category: Social Science

Page: 264

View: 338

The United States government thought it could make Indians "vanish." After the Indian Wars ended in the 1880s, the government gave allotments of land to individual Native Americans in order to turn them into farmers and sent their children to boarding schools for indoctrination into the English language, Christianity, and the ways of white people. Federal officials believed that these policies would assimilate Native Americans into white society within a generation or two. But even after decades of governmental efforts to obliterate Indian culture, Native Americans refused to vanish into the mainstream, and tribal identities remained intact. This revisionist history reveals how Native Americans' sense of identity and "peoplehood" helped them resist and eventually defeat the U.S. government's attempts to assimilate them into white society during the Progressive Era (1890s-1920s). Tom Holm discusses how Native Americans, though effectively colonial subjects without political power, nonetheless maintained their group identity through their native languages, religious practices, works of art, and sense of homeland and sacred history. He also describes how Euro-Americans became increasingly fascinated by and supportive of Native American culture, spirituality, and environmental consciousness. In the face of such Native resiliency and non-Native advocacy, the government's assimilation policy became irrelevant and inevitably collapsed. The great confusion in Indian affairs during the Progressive Era, Holm concludes, ultimately paved the way for Native American tribes to be recognized as nations with certain sovereign rights.

Beauty with Confusion

My child had darkened my days with confusion, and that left me not only confused but it also did something to my health. Leaving this Earth a happy mother ...

Author: Mavis Young Shepherd

Publisher: Dorrance Publishing

ISBN: 143490802X

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 46

View: 895

Comprehension Confusion

Comprehension Confusion : Mr. NIS BETT's SECOND LETTER TO Mr. MORGAN . Now what cannot a Man of Mr. Morgan's invincible Confidence say ?

Author: Peter Nisbett




Page: 60

View: 441

A Confusion of the Spheres

I could very well have presented these in contrast to the confusion of concepts in our age without including Mag. Adler. But I consider it extremely ...

Author: Genia Schönbaumsfeld

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199229821

Category: Philosophy

Page: 213

View: 910

Allusions to the relation between Kierkegaard and Wittgenstein are common in philosophy, but there has been little serious commentary on the relationship of their ideas. Genia Schönbaumsfeld closes this gap and offers new readings of Kierkegaard's and Wittgenstein's intriguing and influential conceptions of philosophy and religious belief.

Nomenclature Avoiding Babylonian Speech Confusion in Present Day Immunology

published: 14 December 2020 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.621100 Editorial: Nomenclature - Avoiding Babylonian Speech Confusion in Present Day Immunology Menno ...

Author: Menno C. van Zelm

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 2889664457

Category: Medical


View: 359

We acknowledge the initiation and support of this Research Topic by the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS). A/Prof. Menno van Zelm currently serves as the chairman for the IUIS Nomenclature Committee; Prof. Pablo Engel is the chair of the IUIS CD Nomenclature Sub-Committee; Prof. Loems Ziegler-Heitbrock is the chair of the IUIS Monocytes and Dendritic Cells in Blood Sub-Committee; Asst. Prof. Sanny Chan is a member of the WHO / IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Sub-Committee and A/Prof. Andrew Collins is co-chair of the Germline Gene Database (GLDB) Working Group of the Adaptive Immune Receptor Repertoire community (AIRR-C) and chair of the Inferred Allele Review Committee (IARC).

Confusion Is Nothing New

Lying in my bed I hear the clock tick, And think of you Caught up in circles Confusion is nothing new Flashback—warm nights— Almost left behind Suitcases of ...

Author: Paul Acampora

Publisher: Scholastic Inc.

ISBN: 1338210017

Category: Juvenile Fiction

Page: 192

View: 639

What's a girl to do when she finds out her late mother was the lead singer of an '80s cover band, Cyndi Lauper is Not Dead? A hilarious MG by an author who's been compared to Peck, Gantos, and Bauer.

Harvest Of Confusion

Harvest of Confusion : Migrant Workers in U.S. Agriculture Philip L. Martin Foreword by John T. Dunlop camera ROUTLEDGE Harvest of Confusion About the ...

Author: Philip L Martin

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0429693400

Category: Science

Page: 238

View: 859

This book is intended as the first building block to assist in the development of realistic solutions for migrant farmworker issues in the U.S. It analyzes the vast and diverse data and literature which generate the confusion over the number and distribution of farmworkers who work in agriculture.

Spectres of Confusion

Anonymous. Spectres of Confusion Anonymous Spectres of Confusion Piercing through the mist Rows of hands. Front Cover.

Author: Anonymous

Publisher: Lulu Press, Inc

ISBN: 130085569X

Category: Fiction


View: 430

How many generations has this curse survived? Page by page we unlock clues as to the origin of the book itself. It looks as if each person who passed this book along somehow became apart of it; as if the book were capable of trapping innocent souls between its pages! Part horror fiction, part philosophy, the book uses a myriad of voices to illustrate its Nihilistic world view. Features essays on: Nietzsche, Descartes, Diogenes and Fernando Pessoa. (This book is the second installment of this author's "Shadow Buddha Trilogy" which includes: 1)In Grand Purple Robes of Madness, 2)Spectres of Confusion and 3)Slow Arrow)

The Nations Confusion

CONFUSION Yamanaka and the Sun - KRISTINA CASTLE THE NATIONS CONFUSION Yamanaka and the Sun Kristina Castle. Front Cover.

Author: Kristina Castle

Publisher: Xlibris Corporation

ISBN: 1503525333

Category: Fiction

Page: 116

View: 933

Yamanaka, the tantalizing vision is back with vengeance. Her history catches up with her causing betrayal, heartache, and confusion within the Nations. Introductions and falling outs shake up the Nations, but at what price? Plans change as the world barely hangs on and the Sun shows its true colors.

India s Urban Confusion

India's urban confusion Challenges and strategies India's urban confusion Challenges and strategies Edited by Dr. M. Front Cover.

Author: M. Ramachandran

Publisher: Copal Publishing Group

ISBN: 9383419059

Category: Political Science

Page: 263

View: 244

With the number of cities and towns going up to about 8,000 now, both the JnNURM and the 12th Five year Plan document focusing on India’s urban rejuvenation, and with the current focus on developing 100 smart cities, total sanitation for all houses by 2019, at least 500 habitations to be provided the basics and a new Mission on Low Cost Affordable Housing, there is a considerable interest among a cross section of society on understanding the complexities of urban India and the way forward. The book discusses these complexities and explains the possible strategies for their solution. Prominent urban thinkers of India have come together to discuss key urban issues of India in this book. The book includes chapters on urban planning, water, solid waste management, transport, finances, slums, PPPs, and governance. India’s Urban Confusion will be a standard reference for urban planners, policymakers, government officials, local bodies/development authorities/other para statals, and academics interested in urban studies, economics, and development studies.​