Debating Darwin

Ruse nicely explains how the breeders contributed to Darwin's understanding of the nature of artificial selection. See Michael Ruse, “Charles Darwin and Artificial ... Darwin, Notebook D (MS, 20), in Charles Darwin's Notebooks, 337.

Author: Robert J. Richards

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226712222

Category: History

Page:

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Charles Darwin is easily the most famous scientist of the modern age, and his theory of evolution is constantly referenced in many contexts by scientists and nonscientists alike. And yet, despite how frequently his ideas are evoked, there remains a surprising amount we don’t know about the father of modern evolutionary thinking, his intellectual roots, and the science he produced. Debating Darwin seeks to change that, bringing together two leading Darwin scholars—Robert J. Richards and Michael Ruse—to engage in a spirited and insightful dialogue, offering their interpretations of Darwin and their critiques of each other’s thinking. Examining key disagreements about Darwin that continue to confound even committed Darwinists, Richards and Ruse offer divergent views on the origins and nature of Darwin and his ideas. Ruse argues that Darwin was quintessentially British and that the roots of his thought can be traced back to the eighteenth century, particularly to the Industrial Revolution and thinkers such as Adam Smith and Thomas Robert Malthus. Ruse argues that when these influences are appreciated, we can see how Darwin’s work in biology is an extension of their theories. In contrast, Richards presents Darwin as a more cosmopolitan, self-educated man, influenced as much by French and particularly German thinkers. Above all, argues Richards, it was Alexander von Humboldt who both inspired Darwin and gave him the conceptual tools that he needed to find and formulate his evolutionary hypotheses. Together, the authors show how the reverberations of the contrasting views on Darwin’s influences can be felt in theories about the nature of natural selection, the role of metaphor in science, and the place of God in Darwin’s thought. Revealing how much there still is to investigate and interrogate about Darwin’s ideas, Debating Darwin contributes to our understanding of evolution itself. The book concludes with a jointly authored chapter that brings this debate into the present, focusing on human evolution, consciousness, religion, and morality. This will be powerful, essential reading for anyone seeking a comprehensive understanding of modern-day evolutionary science and philosophy.

The Cambridge Companion to Darwin

Darwin , Charles Robert , themes in work of ( cont . ) ... Darwin's project to develop ; materialism ; mind ; monads , in Darwin's notebook theories ; moral sense in humans ; natural selection ; pangenesis , Darwin's hypothesis of ...

Author: Jonathan Hodge

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521777308

Category: History

Page: 486

View: 742

The naturalist and geologist Charles Darwin (1809 82) ranks as one of the most influential scientific thinkers of all time. In the nineteenth century his ideas about the history and diversity of life - including the evolutionary origin of humankind - contributed to major changes in the sciences, philosophy, social thought and religious belief. This volume provides the reader with clear, lively and balanced introductions to the most recent scholarship on Darwin and his intellectual legacies. A distinguished team of contributors examines Darwin s main scientific ideas and their development; Darwin s science in the context of its times; the influence of Darwinian thought in recent philosophical, social and religious debate; and the importance of Darwinian thought for the future of naturalist philosophy. New readers will find this the most convenient and accessible guide to Darwin currently available. Advanced students and specialists will find a conspectus of recent developments in the interpretation of Darwin.

From Aristotle s Teleology to Darwin s Genealogy

See C. R. Darwin Notebook C (1838), in Charles Darwin's Notebooks, 1836–1844. Geology, Transmutations of Species, Metaphysical Enquiries, Paul H. Barrett et al. (eds) (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), the Trustees of the British ...

Author: M. Solinas

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137445777

Category: Science

Page: 182

View: 986

From Aristotle to Darwin, from ancient teleology to contemporary genealogies, this book offers an overview of the birth and then persistence of Aristotle's framework into modernity, until its radical overthrow by the evolutionary revolution.

Darwin Inspired Learning

The original drawing, as shown in Darwin's Notebook B, has the annotation 'I think' (see Figure 2). Richard Fortey (2009) describes this brief note as a 'wonderfully ambiguous statement' suggesting that its appeal, in contrast to ...

Author: Carolyn J. Boulter

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9462098336

Category: Education

Page: 436

View: 201

Charles Darwin has been extensively analysed and written about as a scientist, Victorian, father and husband. However, this is the first book to present a carefully thought out pedagogical approach to learning that is centered on Darwin’s life and scientific practice. The ways in which Darwin developed his scientific ideas, and their far reaching effects, continue to challenge and provoke contemporary teachers and learners, inspiring them to consider both how scientists work and how individual humans ‘read nature’. Darwin-inspired learning, as proposed in this international collection of essays, is an enquiry-based pedagogy, that takes the professional practice of Charles Darwin as its source. Without seeking to idealise the man, Darwin-inspired learning places importance on: • active learning • hands-on enquiry • critical thinking • creativity • argumentation • interdisciplinarity. In an increasingly urbanised world, first-hand observations of living plants and animals are becoming rarer. Indeed, some commentators suggest that such encounters are under threat and children are living in a time of ‘nature-deficit’. Darwin-inspired learning, with its focus on close observation and hands-on enquiry, seeks to re-engage children and young people with the living world through critical and creative thinking modeled on Darwin’s life and science.

A Concordance to Charles Darwin s Notebooks 1836 1844

Professor Charles Darwin, Charles Darwin Donald Jerome Weinshank, Stephan J. Ozminski, Paul E. Ruhlen, Wilma Barrett, ... Each keyword is coded to the page number of the British Museum - Cornell source text , Charles Darwin's Notebooks ...

Author: Professor Charles Darwin

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 739

View: 516

A companion to Charles Darwin's notebooks, 1836-1844 (Cornell U. Pr., 1987). Because Darwin was in the process of formulating his arguments, entries on a single topic might appear in several series of notes at any number of places in various manuscripts. This concordance gathers these citations toge

Darwin s Camera

6. Charles Darwin, “Notebook M,” Charles Darwin's Notebooks 1836–1844, Paul Barrett et al., eds. [Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1987], p. 539. The editors speculate that the “National Institution” to which Darwin refers is ...

Author: Phillip Prodger

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199722303

Category: Photography

Page: 320

View: 793

Darwin's Camera tells the extraordinary story of how Charles Darwin changed the way pictures are seen and made. In his illustrated masterpiece, Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1871), Darwin introduced the idea of using photographs to illustrate a scientific theory--his was the first photographically illustrated science book ever published. Using photographs to depict fleeting expressions of emotion--laughter, crying, anger, and so on--as they flit across a person's face, he managed to produce dramatic images at a time when photography was famously slow and awkward. The book describes how Darwin struggled to get the pictures he needed, scouring the galleries, bookshops, and photographic studios of London, looking for pictures to satisfy his demand for expressive imagery. He finally settled on one the giants of photographic history, the eccentric art photographer Oscar Rejlander, to make his pictures. It was a peculiar choice. Darwin was known for his meticulous science, while Rejlander was notorious for altering and manipulating photographs. Their remarkable collaboration is one of the astonishing revelations in Darwin's Camera. Darwin never studied art formally, but he was always interested in art and often drew on art knowledge as his work unfolded. He mingled with the artists on the voyage of HMS Beagle, he visited art museums to examine figures and animals in paintings, associated with artists, and read art history books. He befriended the celebrated animal painters Joseph Wolf and Briton Riviere, and accepted the Pre-Raphaelite sculptor Thomas Woolner as a trusted guide. He corresponded with legendary photographers Lewis Carroll, Julia Margaret Cameron, and G.-B. Duchenne de Boulogne, as well as many lesser lights. Darwin's Camera provides the first examination ever of these relationships and their effect on Darwin's work, and how Darwin, in turn, shaped the history of art.

Darwin s Argument by Analogy

Third, dating Darwin's notebook entries and marginalia is not always possible; narratives grounded in what is securely dateable take precedence. Fourth, the famous sentences prompted by Darwin's late September reading of Robert Malthus ...

Author: Roger M. White

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108851657

Category: Science

Page:

View: 835

In On the Origin of Species (1859), Charles Darwin put forward his theory of natural selection. Conventionally, Darwin's argument for this theory has been understood as based on an analogy with artificial selection. But there has been no consensus on how, exactly, this analogical argument is supposed to work – and some suspicion too that analogical arguments on the whole are embarrassingly weak. Drawing on new insights into the history of analogical argumentation from the ancient Greeks onward, as well as on in-depth studies of Darwin's public and private writings, this book offers an original perspective on Darwin's argument, restoring to view the intellectual traditions which Darwin took for granted in arguing as he did. From this perspective come new appreciations not only of Darwin's argument but of the metaphors based on it, the range of wider traditions the argument touched upon, and its legacies for science after the Origin.

Lincoln and Darwin

Darwin, “Ornithological Notes,” DAR 29.2:73–74 quoted in J. Browne, Charles Darwin: Voyaging, 339. 41. Sulloway, “Darwin and His ... Darwin, Notebook B, quoted in Desmond and Moore, Darwin's Sacred Cause, 231–32. 44. Darwin, Notebook C ...

Author: James Lander

Publisher: SIU Press

ISBN: 0809385864

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 351

View: 906

Born on the same day in 1809, Abraham Lincoln and Charles Darwin were true contemporaries. Though shaped by vastly different environments, they had remarkably similar values, purposes, and approaches. In this exciting new study, James Lander places these two iconic men side by side and reveals the parallel views they shared of man and God. While Lincoln is renowned for his oratorical prowess and for the Emancipation Proclamation, as well as many other accomplishments, his scientific and technological interests are not widely recognized; for example, many Americans do not know that Lincoln is the only U.S. president to obtain a patent. Darwin, on the other hand, is celebrated for his scientific achievements but not for his passionate commitment to the abolition of slavery, which in part drove his research in evolution. Both men took great pains to avoid causing unnecessary offense despite having abandoned traditional Christianity. Each had one main adversary who endorsed scientific racism: Lincoln had Stephen A. Douglas, and Darwin had Louis Agassiz. With graceful and sophisticated writing, Lander expands on these commonalities and uncovers more shared connections to people, politics, and events. He traces how these two intellectual giants came to hold remarkably similar perspectives on the evils of racism, the value of science, and the uncertainties of conventional religion. Separated by an ocean but joined in their ideas, Lincoln and Darwin acted as trailblazers, leading their societies toward greater freedom of thought and a greater acceptance of human equality. This fascinating biographical examination brings the mid-nineteenth-century discourse about race, science, and humanitarian sensibility to the forefront using the mutual interests and pursuits of these two historic figures.

Darwin s Psychology

90 If we trace Darwin's use of the term metaphysics over time, we find that he initially used it descriptively, ... 97 Darwin, 'Notebook M,' pp.84e, 136; Darwin, 'Notebook N,' p.5, 2.5 Darwin's Approach to the Study of Humans 45.

Author: Ben Bradley

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191017906

Category: Psychology

Page: 304

View: 319

Darwin has long been hailed as forefather to behavioural science, especially nowadays, with the growing popularity of evolutionary psychologies. Yet, until now, his contribution to the field of psychology has been somewhat understated. This is the first book ever to examine the riches of what Darwin himself wrote about psychological matters. It unearths a Darwin new to contemporary science, whose first concern is the agency of organisms — from which he derives both his psychology, and his theory of evolution. A deep reading of Darwin's writings on climbing plants and babies, blushing and bower-birds, worms and facial movements, shows that, for Darwin, evolution does not explain everything about human action. Group-life and culture are also keys, whether we discuss the dynamics of conscience or the dramas of desire. Thus his treatment of facial actions sets out from the anatomy and physiology of human facial movements, and shows how these gain meanings through their recognition by others. A discussion of blushing extends his theory to the way reading others' expressions rebounds on ourselves — I care about how I think you read me. This dynamic proves central to how Darwin understands sexual desire, the production of conscience and of social standards through group dynamics, and the role of culture in human agency. Presenting a new Darwin to science, and showing how widely Darwin's understanding of evolution and agency has been misunderstood and misrepresented in biology and the social sciences, this important new book lights a new way forward for those who want to build psychology on the foundation of evolutionary biology

Aristotle s Ladder Darwin s Tree

Earliest Musings Darwin's single most famous tree of life never appeared in print in his lifetime but became ... We must back up to page 26 in Notebook B to see the two earliest surviving diagrams by Darwin (1960) (figure 4.1).

Author: J. David. Archibald

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231164122

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 537

Leading paleontologist David Archibald explores the rich history of visual metaphors for biological order from ancient times to the present and their influence on human beingsÕ perception of their place in nature. Specifically, Archibald focuses on ladders and trees, and the first appearance of trees to represent seasonal life cycles. Their use in ancient Roman decorations and genealogies was then appropriated by the early Christian Church to represent biblical genealogies. The late eighteenth century saw the idea of a tree reappropriated to visualize relationships in the natural world, sometimes with a creationist view, but in some instances suggesting evolution. Charles DarwinÕs On the Origin of Species (1859) exorcised the exclusively creationist view of the Òtree of life.Ó His ideas sparked an explosion of trees, mostly by younger acolytes in Europe. Although DarwinÕs influence waned in the early twentieth century, by midcentury his ideas held sway once again in time for another and even greater explosion of tree building, generated by the development of new theories on how to assemble trees, the birth of powerful computing, and the emergence of molecular technology. Throughout his far-reaching study, and with the use of many figures, Archibald connects the evolution of Òtree of lifeÓ iconography to our changing perception of the world and ourselves, offering uncommon insight into how we went from standing on the top rung of the biological ladder to embodying just one tiny twig on the tree of life.