An Introduction to Turbulent Flow

The dissipation of the total flow energy due to the mean - flow component is ... at the high Reynolds numbers associated with many turbulent flows , that is ...

Author: Jean Mathieu

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521775380

Category: Science

Page: 374

View: 903

First published in 2000, this book provides the physical and mathematical framework necessary to understand turbulent flow.

Why Does Electricity Flow

Electricity flows when a source of energy works on moving an electric charge through a circuit. The energy can be movement, a chemical reaction, ...

Author: Rob Moore

Publisher: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc

ISBN: 1615318933

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 24

View: 863

Provides answers to questions related to electricity, its qualities, how it is generated and stored, and how people use it.

Applications of Flow Cytometry in Stem Cell Research and Tissue Regeneration

Flow cytometric analysis of human embryonic stem cells. In: Wesselschmidt RL, Loring JF, Schwartz PH, Eds. Human Stem Cell Manual. Elsevier, New York, pp.

Author: Awtar Krishan

Publisher: John Wiley and Sons

ISBN: 1118125851

Category: Science

Page: 410

View: 291

A much-needed primer on the use of laser flow cytometry for stemcell analysis Laser flow cytometry is a powerful tool for rapid analysis ofcells for marker expression, cell cycle position, proliferation,and apoptosis. However, no resources specifically address the useof this methodology for the study of stem cells; this is especiallyimportant as stem cell analysis involves specialized methods andstaining procedures based on specific characteristics such asmarker expression, cell size, drug transport, and efflux of thestem cells. Now, this book reviews these procedures, discusses the sciencebehind them, and provides real-world examples to illustrate theusefulness of the methods. It brings together world-class expertsin pathology, biophysics, immunology, and stem cell research, whodraw upon their extensive experience with the methods and showexamples of good data to help guide researchers in the rightdirection. Chapter coverage includes: Stem cell analysis and sorting using side population Flow cytometry in the study of proliferation and apoptosis Stem cell biology and application Identification and isolation of very small embryonic-like stemcells from murine and human specimens Hematopoietic stem cells—issues in enumeration Human embryonic stem cells: long-term culture andcardiovascular differentiation Limbal stem cells and corneal regeneration Flow cytometric sorting of spermatogonial stem cells Breast cancer stem cells Stem cell marker expression in cells from body cavityfluids This book is an essential resource for all graduate students,practitioners in developing countries, libraries and bookrepositories of universities and research institutions, andindividual researchers. It is also of interest to laboratoriesengaged in stem cell research and use of stem cells for tissueregeneration, and to any organization dealing in stem cell andtissue regeneration research.

Multicomponent Flow Modeling

chemistry flows , a symmetric role is often given to all mass fractions by considering them as fundamental unknowns . These mass fractions are thus ...

Author: Vincent Giovangigli

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780817640484

Category: Mathematics

Page: 321

View: 538

"The book provides an essential interdisciplinary overview and exposition of multicomponent flow modeling for graduates and professionals in applied mathematics, mechanical engineering, fluid dynamics, and physics."--BOOK JACKET.


River Flow 2004

River Flow 2004 – Greco, Carravetta & Della Morte (eds.) ... Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands ABSTRACT: Flows in river bends are very shallow ...

Author: Massimo Greco

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482298341

Category: Science

Page: 1491

View: 559

RiverFlow 2004 is the Second International Conference on Fluvial Hydraulics, organized as speciality conferences under the auspices of the International Association of Hydraulic Engineering and Research (IAHR) within its Fluvial Hydraulics and Eco Hydraulics Sections. RiverFlow conferences are a significant forum of discussion for many researchers

Network Flow Algorithms

Definition 2.1: An s-t flow f : A → ≥0 is an assignment of nonnegative reals to the arcs such that the following two properties are obeyed: • for all arcs ...

Author: David P. Williamson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107185890

Category: Computers

Page: 342

View: 475

Offers an up-to-date, unified treatment of combinatorial algorithms to solve network flow problems for graduate students and professionals.


Flow Chemistry

Chapter 1 Recent Perspectives in Catalysis under Continuous Flow Haruro Ishitani, Yuki Saito, Benjamin Laroche, Xiaofeng Rao and Shū Kobayashi 1.1 ...

Author: Santiago V Luis

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 1788018931

Category: Science

Page: 542

View: 319

Historically pharmaceutical and fine chemical products have been synthesised using batch methods, but increasingly chemists are looking towards flow chemistry as a greener and more efficient alternative. In flow chemistry reactions are performed in a reactor with the reactants pumped through it. It has the benefit of being easily scaled up and it is straightforward to integrate synthesis, workup and analysis into one system. Flow chemistry is considered a greener alternative to batch chemistry because it is easier to control and minimise hazardous intermediates and by-products. There is significant interest in the use of flow chemistry both in the lab and on an industrial scale. Flow Chemistry provides an update on recent advances that have been made in the field. Particular emphasis is given to the new integrated approaches that bring together several elements to implement flow processes as a regular green chemistry tool for the chemical industries. With chapter contributions from several well-known experts in the field, this book is a valuable resource for researchers working in green chemistry and synthesis, chemical engineers and industrial chemists working in the pharmaceutical and fine chemicals industries.

Investigation of Pressure Drop and Dynamic Instabilities in Two phase Flow

Another slight disturbance may lead to an increase in mass flow, resulting in cooling of the wall. The heat transfer coefficient improves again and steam ...

Author: Thomas Lanz

Publisher: Cuvillier Verlag

ISBN: 3736963262

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 180

View: 426

Zweiphasenströmungen, insbesondere Wasser/Dampf-Strömungen, sind für die Auslegung und den Betrieb thermohydraulischer Systeme nach wie vor von großem Interesse. Diese Arbeit befasst sich mit der Untersuchung des Druckverlustes und dynamischer Instabilitäten (hier Dichtewellenoszillationen) in Wasser/Dampf-Strömungen mittels zweier unterschiedlicher Ansätze unter praxisnahen Bedingungen. Zum einen wird ein Versuchsstand entwickelt, aufgebaut und in Betrieb genommen, um mit diesem entsprechende Versuche an einem Verdampferrohr durchzuführen. Zum anderen werden dynamische Simulationen mit einem homogenen („mixture flow“) und einem heterogenen („two-fluid“) Strömungsmodell durchgeführt und miteinander und mit den Messdaten verglichen. Die experimentellen und numerischen Ergebnisse lassen sich schließlich in dimensionslosen Stabilitätskarten zusammenfassen, welche die Betriebsgrenzen beschreiben, bei denen Dichtewellenoszillationen in thermohydraulisch ähnlichen Systemen auftreten können.

Thermal and Flow Measurements

2.4 FLOW RATE MEASUREMENTS In principle, flow rates can be measured by determining the velocity across the flow channel. Measurement of precise velocity in ...

Author: T.-W. Lee

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0849379725

Category: Science

Page: 400

View: 720

Thermal and flow processes are ubiquitous in mechanical, aerospace and chemical engineering systems. Experimental methods including thermal and flow diagnostics are therefore an important element in preparation of future engineers and researchers in this field. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of experimentation, a fundamental guidance book is e


Three Dimensional Attached Viscous Flow

cous flow [13]. Cartesian coordinate system, x and y are the surface coordinates, z is the coordinate normal to the surface. The wall normal imaginary stem ...

Author: Ernst Heinrich Hirschel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642413781

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 391

View: 657

Viscous flow is treated usually in the frame of boundary-layer theory and as two-dimensional flow. Books on boundary layers give at most the describing equations for three-dimensional boundary layers, and solutions often only for some special cases. This book provides basic principles and theoretical foundations regarding three-dimensional attached viscous flow. Emphasis is put on general three-dimensional attached viscous flows and not on three-dimensional boundary layers. This wider scope is necessary in view of the theoretical and practical problems to be mastered in practice. The topics are weak, strong, and global interaction, the locality principle, properties of three-dimensional viscous flow, thermal surface effects, characteristic properties, wall compatibility conditions, connections between inviscid and viscous flow, flow topology, quasi-one- and two-dimensional flows, laminar-turbulent transition and turbulence. Though the primary flight speed range is that of civil air transport vehicles, flows past other flying vehicles up to hypersonic speeds are also considered. Emphasis is put on general three-dimensional attached viscous flows and not on three-dimensional boundary layers, as this wider scope is necessary in view of the theoretical and practical problems that have to be overcome in practice. The specific topics covered include weak, strong, and global interaction; the locality principle; properties of three-dimensional viscous flows; thermal surface effects; characteristic properties; wall compatibility conditions; connections between inviscid and viscous flows; flow topology; quasi-one- and two-dimensional flows; laminar-turbulent transition; and turbulence. Detailed discussions of examples illustrate these topics and the relevant phenomena encountered in three-dimensional viscous flows. The full governing equations, reference-temperature relations for qualitative considerations and estimations of flow properties, and coordinates for fuselages and wings are also provided. Sample problems with solutions allow readers to test their understanding.


Advances in Two Phase Flow and Heat Transfer

Influence of system configurations on two-phase flow 2. A possible reorganization of flow regime maps 3. Instrumentation 1.

Author: Sadik Kakaç

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400968485

Category: Science

Page: 457

View: 564

Over the past two decades, two-phase flow and heat transfer problems associated with two-phase phenomena have been a challenge to many investigators. Two-phase flow applications are found in a wide range of engineering systems, such as nuclear and conventional power plants, evaporators of refrigeration systems and a wide vari ety of evaporative and condensive heat exchangers in the chemical industry. This publication is based on the invited lectures presented at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on the Advances in Two-Phase Flow and Heat Transfer. The Horkshop was attended by more than 50 leading scientists and practicing engineers who work actively on two-phase flow and heat transfer research and applications in dif ferent sectors (academia, government, industry) of member countries of NATO. Some scientific leaders and experts on the subject matter from the non-NATO countries were also invited. They convened to discuss the state-of-the-art in two-phase flow and heat transfer and formulated recommendations for future research directions. To achieve these goals, invited key papers and a limited number of contributions were presented and discussed. The specific aspects of the subject were treated in depth in the panel sessions, and the unresolved problems identified. Suitable as a practical reference, these volumes incorporate a systematic approach to two-phase flow analysis.

Rock Fractures and Fluid Flow

Contemporary Understanding and Applications Committee on Fracture Characterization and Fluid Flow, Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources, ...

Author: Committee on Fracture Characterization and Fluid Flow

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309563488

Category: Science

Page: 542

View: 572

Scientific understanding of fluid flow in rock fractures--a process underlying contemporary earth science problems from the search for petroleum to the controversy over nuclear waste storage--has grown significantly in the past 20 years. This volume presents a comprehensive report on the state of the field, with an interdisciplinary viewpoint, case studies of fracture sites, illustrations, conclusions, and research recommendations. The book addresses these questions: How can fractures that are significant hydraulic conductors be identified, located, and characterized? How do flow and transport occur in fracture systems? How can changes in fracture systems be predicted and controlled? Among other topics, the committee provides a geomechanical understanding of fracture formation, reviews methods for detecting subsurface fractures, and looks at the use of hydraulic and tracer tests to investigate fluid flow. The volume examines the state of conceptual and mathematical modeling, and it provides a useful framework for understanding the complexity of fracture changes that occur during fluid pumping and other engineering practices. With a practical and multidisciplinary outlook, this volume will be welcomed by geologists, petroleum geologists, geoengineers, geophysicists, hydrologists, researchers, educators and students in these fields, and public officials involved in geological projects.


The Role of Convection and Fluid Flow in Solidification and Crystal Growth

As in the earlier treatment heat flow was not solved theoretically, but instead temperature gradient and freezing rate were measured by experiment.

Author: D. T. J. Hurle

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483213781

Category: Science

Page: 152

View: 363

Physicochemical Hydrodynamics: The Role of Convection and Fluid Flow in Solidification and Crystal Growth focuses on the processes, methodologies, reactions, and approaches involved in solidification and crystal growth brought about by convection and fluid flow. The selection first offers information on the techniques of crystal growth, convection in Czochralski growth melts, and Marangoni effects in crystal growth melts. Discussions focus on crystal growth under reduced gravity, Marangoni effects in growth from a crucible, thermocapillary convection in floating zones, near-field flow, Czochralski bulk flow, and melt, solution, and vapor growth. The text then examines the effect of convective flow on morphological stability and time-dependent natural convection in crystal growth systems. The manuscript elaborates on the effects of fluid flow on the solidification of industrial castings and ingots and application of holographic interferometry to hydrodynamic phenomena in crystal growth. Topics include effects of fluid flow on crystal structure, importance of macrosegregation defects in castings, value of convection in crystal growth, and occurrence of thermal oscillations in fluids. The selection is a dependable reference for readers interested in the role of convection and fluid flow in solidification and crystal growth.

Three Dimensional Flow in the Root Region of Wind Turbine Rotors

separation line or in the separated flow domain. Tanner and Yaggy [18] investigated the boundary layer characteristics of a hovering rotor aimed to examine ...

Author: Galih Bangga

Publisher: kassel university press GmbH

ISBN: 373760536X

Category:

Page: 182

View: 861

This book presents the state of the art in the analyses of three-dimensional flow over rotating wind turbine blades. Systematic studies for wind turbine rotors with different sizes were carried out numerically employing three different simulation approaches, namely the Euler, URANS and DDES methods. The main mechanisms of the lift augmentation in the blade inboard region are described in detail. The physical relations between the inviscid and viscous effects are presented and evaluated, emphasizing the influence of the flow curvature on the resulting pressure distributions. Detailed studies concerning the lift augmentation for large wind turbine rotors are considered as thick inboard airfoils characterized by massive separation are desired to stronger contribute to power production. Special attention is given to the analyses of wind turbine loads and flow field that can be helpful for the interpretation of the occurring physical phenomena. The book is aimed at students, researchers, engineers and physicists dealing with wind engineering problems, but also for a wider audience involved in flow computations.

Low flow Habitat Rehabilitation evaluation RCHARC Methodology Rapid Creek South Dakota

characteristics ; interception and infiltration relations ; identification of preferred overland and channel flow routing techniques ; resistance to flow ...

Author: Mitchell R. Peters

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Aquatic habitats

Page: 146

View: 396

Aquatic habitat quality is dependent on water quality, bed slope, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, substrate, vegetation, and hydraulic parameters in the stream system. The Riverine Community Habitat Assessment and Restoration Concept (RCHARC) is a methodology developed by the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Environmental Laboratory, to compare hydraulic parameters (depth and velocity) between natural, degraded, and restored channel reaches. The methodology is generally applied to alternate reaches in the same stream; therefore, the habitat quality variables must also be closely matched. RCHARC assumes that if the diversity of hydraulic and habitat quality parameters for a 'comparison standard' reach can be replicated in the stream restoration reach, then the aquatic habitat quality can be enhanced. The RCHARC Methodology has been successfully applied to large, warm-water rivers. The objective of this study was to Beta test the RCHARC methodology for its applicability to cold-water flood control channels. The results of the Beta test and analysis conducted at Rapid Creek, South Dakota, are reported herein. The field site selected for testing the RCHARC methodology was Rapid Creek, located in and adjacent to Rapid City, SD. Natural (comparison standard) and restored reaches were identified for comparison. Field crews were dispatched in June and October 1993 to collect field data during high- and low-flow conditions, respectively. Data collected included cross-sectional profiles, discharge, depth and velocity pairs, dissolved oxygen, water temperature, thalweg and water surface elevation profiles, suspended and bed-load samples, armor layer and substrate samples, and photographic documentation.