Induced Seismicity

This volume presents a collection of 16 papers accepted for publication which accrued from this workshop. The first three papers address mining activity related to induced seismicity.

Author: Harsh K. Gupta

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3034892381

Category: Science

Page: 217

View: 683

A workshop on Induced Seismicity was organized during the 27th General Assembly of the International Association of Seismology and Physics of Earth's Interior (IASPEI) in Wellington, New Zealand during January 10-21, 1994. This volume presents a collection of 16 papers accepted for publication which accrued from this workshop. The first three papers address mining activity related to induced seismicity. The fourth paper deals with water injection induced seismic activity, while the remaining 12 papers treat several aspects of water reservoir induced earthquakes. Globally, the Koyna dam creating Shivajisagar Lake in Maharashtra, India, continues to be the most significant site of reservoir-induced earthquakes. With the increase in the number of cases of induced seismicity, there is a growing concern among planners, engineers, geophysicists and geologists to understand the environment conducive to this phenomenon. While the changes in pore-fluid pressure have been identified as the key factor in inducing earthquakes, the phenomenon itself is still poorly understood. This reality thus makes the study of the induced seismicity very important and this volume timely.


Induced Earthquakes

The book has six main chapters namely 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7, the first and last chapters, namely 1 and 8 being introduction and overview of all forms of induced seismicity.

Author: S.K. Guha

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 940159452X

Category: Science

Page: 314

View: 895

There are few books and long review articles on water reservoir induced seismicity, mining induced seismicity and even on volcanic seismicity but the subjects of induced seismicity following fluid extraction and nuclear explosion and seismicity associated with tidal stress in Earth have not received significant attention though there are research papers in relevant literature. Thus an attempt has been made to discuss all the known forms of induced seismicity in the present book and to bring out common features of the different phenomena causing induced seismicity. The book has six main chapters namely 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7, the first and last chapters, namely 1 and 8 being introduction and overview of all forms of induced seismicity. Material in Chapters 2 and 3 is rather recent though water reservoirs and petroleum extraction processes have been in existence over many decades. But, literature on chapters 4 and 5 is available since last one century or so as volcanic process and mining operation affect nearby human habitation and mining severely due to induced seismicity associated with mining in particular. However, literature on possible induced seismicity due to tidal stress is fairly old, the same following nuclear explosion is naturally recent.

Reservoir Induced Earthquakes

It appears possible to mitigate the hazard of RIS through manipulation of reservoir levels. The present volume is an updated and revised follow-up to the 1976 book.

Author: H.K. Gupta

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444597352

Category: Science

Page: 382

View: 225

Since the publication of the first Dams and Earthquakes in 1976, the phenomenon of reservoir induced seismicity (RIS) is more widely understood. There are now over 70 known cases of reservoir-induced earthquakes. These damaging earthquakes have occurred in China, Kariba, Zambia, Greece, Kremasta, Koyna, India, California and elsewhere. The December 10, 1967 Koyna earthquake, with a magnitude of 6.3 claimed over 200 lives, injured 1500 and rendered thousands homeless. Because of the ever increasing demand for dam construction, for power generation, irrigation, and flood control, it is necessary to understand how, where and why induced earthquakes occur. Recent research has demonstrated that when suitable physical measurements of rock properties are made, a fairly accurate model of induced seismicity can be obtained. It appears possible to mitigate the hazard of RIS through manipulation of reservoir levels. The present volume is an updated and revised follow-up to the 1976 book. It presents an overview of the world-wide distribution of RIS, the salient aspects of RIS at specific reservior sites where earthquakes of M〉5 have occurred and where new results on RIS are reported, and how they differ from the normal earthquake sequences. An examination of the non-occurrence of induced earthquakes in the vicinity of the Himalyan reservoirs and other related topics such as: the size of the largest induced earthquake that could occur at a given reservoir site; prediction of induced earthquakes; and dam site investigations which should be completed during the planning and operation of the reservoirs are also included.

Monitoring Induced Seismicity

The recording of substantial high quality seismic data has stimulated the work on theoretical and practical aspects related to these applications, involving not only seismological knowledge, but also elements of rock mechanics, and an ...

Author: Cezar-I. Trifu

Publisher: Birkhäuser

ISBN: 9783034603058

Category: Science

Page: 214

View: 104

Stress re-distribution as a result of exploitation of mineral, hydrocarbon, geothermal, and water resources cannot be eliminated. The effort must be directed to a better understanding of the underlying processes for the management of the hazard and risk associated with these operations. The study of induced seismicity has continually evolved over the past couple of decades, as underlined by both the number and complexity of applied studies required to satisfy the increased economic demands, assure the safety of the workforce and equipment, and protect the environment. A considerable effort has been put into the development of passive monitoring technology, specialized products and services being available for a wide range of applications. The recording of substantial high quality seismic data has stimulated the work on theoretical and practical aspects related to these applications, involving not only seismological knowledge, but also elements of rock mechanics, and an understanding of mining, geotechnical, and petroleum engineering. Pure and Applied Geophysics has largely contributed to raising the profile of induced seismicity research and its credibility. The range of specific analyses included in the present collection of studies expresses how powerful and resourceful passive seismic monitoring has become to so many applications. Seismic data are routinely evaluated for a series of development activities specific to each application. Engineering practice is continually improved based on trials and analyses of the ground response and stress levels, confirmed through the monitoring of seismicity. We are better equipped than ever to provide management decisions based on formalized, quantitative, and thus objective assessment.

Fluid Induced Seismicity

This book provides a quantitative introduction to the underlying physics, application, interpretation, and hazard aspects of fluid-induced seismicity with a particular focus on its spatio-temporal dynamics.

Author: Serge A. Shapiro

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 131629806X

Category: Science

Page:

View: 323

The characterisation of fluid transport properties of rocks is one of the most important, yet difficult, challenges of reservoir geophysics, but is essential for optimal development of hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs. This book provides a quantitative introduction to the underlying physics, application, interpretation, and hazard aspects of fluid-induced seismicity with a particular focus on its spatio-temporal dynamics. It presents many real data examples of microseismic monitoring of hydraulic fracturing at hydrocarbon fields and of stimulations of enhanced geothermal systems. The author also covers introductory aspects of linear elasticity and poroelasticity theory, as well as elements of seismic rock physics and mechanics of earthquakes, enabling readers to develop a comprehensive understanding of the field. Fluid-Induced Seismicity is a valuable reference for researchers and graduate students working in the fields of geophysics, geology, geomechanics and petrophysics, and a practical guide for petroleum geoscientists and engineers working in the energy industry.

Induced Seismic Events

Reprint from Pure and Applied Geophysics (PAGEOPH), Volume 147 (1996), No. 2

Author: Peter Knoll

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783764354541

Category: Science

Page: 226

View: 295

Reprint from Pure and Applied Geophysics (PAGEOPH), Volume 147 (1996), No. 2

Induced Seismicity Potential in Energy Technologies

Committee on Induced Seismicity Potential in Energy Technologies, Committee on Earth Resources, Committee on Geological and Geotechnical Engineering, Committee on Seismology and Geodynamics, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources, ...

Author: Committee on Induced Seismicity Potential in Energy Technologies

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309253683

Category: Science

Page: 245

View: 343

In the past several years, some energy technologies that inject or extract fluid from the Earth, such as oil and gas development and geothermal energy development, have been found or suspected to cause seismic events, drawing heightened public attention. Although only a very small fraction of injection and extraction activities among the hundreds of thousands of energy development sites in the United States have induced seismicity at levels noticeable to the public, understanding the potential for inducing felt seismic events and for limiting their occurrence and impacts is desirable for state and federal agencies, industry, and the public at large. To better understand, limit, and respond to induced seismic events, work is needed to build robust prediction models, to assess potential hazards, and to help relevant agencies coordinate to address them. Induced Seismicity Potential in Energy Technologies identifies gaps in knowledge and research needed to advance the understanding of induced seismicity; identify gaps in induced seismic hazard assessment methodologies and the research to close those gaps; and assess options for steps toward best practices with regard to energy development and induced seismicity potential.

Passive Seismic Monitoring of Induced Seismicity

Various criteria have been developed to distinguish induced seismicity from natural earthquakes. Davis and Frohlich (1993) proposed a set of seven questions to assess whether an event may have been induced. Dahm etal.

Author: David W. Eaton

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108596665

Category: Science

Page:

View: 784

The past few decades have witnessed remarkable growth in the application of passive seismic monitoring to address a range of problems in geoscience and engineering, from large-scale tectonic studies to environmental investigations. Passive seismic methods are increasingly being used for surveillance of massive, multi-stage hydraulic fracturing and development of enhanced geothermal systems. The theoretical framework and techniques used in this emerging area draw on various established fields, such as earthquake seismology, exploration geophysics and rock mechanics. Based on university and industry courses developed by the author, this book reviews all the relevant research and technology to provide an introduction to the principles and applications of passive seismic monitoring. It integrates up-to-date case studies and interactive online exercises, making it a comprehensive and accessible resource for advanced students and researchers in geophysics and engineering, as well as industry practitioners.



Induced Seismicity Potential in Energy Technologies

Induced Seismicity Potential in Energy Technologies identifies gaps in knowledge and research needed to advance the understanding of induced seismicity; identify gaps in induced seismic hazard assessment methodologies and the research to ...

Author: National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309253675

Category: Science

Page: 262

View: 556

In the past several years, some energy technologies that inject or extract fluid from the Earth, such as oil and gas development and geothermal energy development, have been found or suspected to cause seismic events, drawing heightened public attention. Although only a very small fraction of injection and extraction activities among the hundreds of thousands of energy development sites in the United States have induced seismicity at levels noticeable to the public, understanding the potential for inducing felt seismic events and for limiting their occurrence and impacts is desirable for state and federal agencies, industry, and the public at large. To better understand, limit, and respond to induced seismic events, work is needed to build robust prediction models, to assess potential hazards, and to help relevant agencies coordinate to address them. Induced Seismicity Potential in Energy Technologies identifies gaps in knowledge and research needed to advance the understanding of induced seismicity; identify gaps in induced seismic hazard assessment methodologies and the research to close those gaps; and assess options for steps toward best practices with regard to energy development and induced seismicity potential.

Onshore Unconventional Hydrocarbon Development

Oil and gas well completion and stimulation technologies to develop unconventional hydrocarbon resources in the United States have evolved over the past several decades, particularly in relation to the development of shale oil and shale gas ...

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309474833

Category: Science

Page: 54

View: 652

Oil and gas well completion and stimulation technologies to develop unconventional hydrocarbon resources in the United States have evolved over the past several decades, particularly in relation to the development of shale oil and shale gas. Shale oil and shale gas resources and the technology associated with their production are often termed "unconventional" because the oil and gas trapped inside the shale or other low-permeability rock formation cannot be extracted using conventional technologies. Since about 2005, the application of these technologies to fields in the U.S. have helped produce natural gas and oil in volumes that allowed the country to reduce its crude oil imports by more than 50% and to become a net natural gas exporter. The regional and national economic and energy advances gained through production and use of these resources have been accompanied, however, by rapid expansion of the infrastructure associated with the development of these fields and public concern over the impacts to surface- and groundwater, air, land, and communities where the resources are extracted. A workshop on December 1 and 2, 2016 at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC, explored the management of risk related to the development of onshore unconventional oil and gas resources such as shale oil and shale gas. The second part of the workshop, on December 2, addressed issues associated with induced seismicity and managing the risk of induced seismic events associated with development of oil and gas fields. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from this second day of the workshop.

Passive Seismic Monitoring of Induced Seismicity

An introduction to the principles and applications of passive seismic monitoring, providing an accessible overview of current research and technology.

Author: David W. Eaton

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107145252

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 374

View: 535

An introduction to the principles and applications of passive seismic monitoring, providing an accessible overview of current research and technology.


Seismicity Caused By Mines Fluid Injections Reservoirs and Oil Extraction

DING , Y. Z. et al . , Reservoir - induced Seismicity ( in Chinese ) ( Seismological Press , Beijing 1987 ) , 187 pp . FYFE , W. S. , PRICE , N. J. , and THOMPSON , A. B. , Fluids in the Earth's Crust : Their Significance in Metamorphic ...

Author: Shahriar Talebi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783764360481

Category: Science

Page: 233

View: 877

Reprint from Pure and Applied Geophysics (PAGEOPH), Volume 153 (1998), No. 1

Unconventional Reservoir Geomechanics

This text provides an essential overview for students, researchers, and industry professionals interested in unconventional reservoirs.

Author: Mark D. Zoback

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108653111

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page:

View: 325

Since the beginning of the US shale gas revolution in 2005, the development of unconventional oil and gas resources has gathered tremendous pace around the world. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the key geologic, geophysical, and engineering principles that govern the development of unconventional reservoirs. The book begins with a detailed characterization of unconventional reservoir rocks: their composition and microstructure, mechanical properties, and the processes controlling fault slip and fluid flow. A discussion of geomechanical principles follows, including the state of stress, pore pressure, and the importance of fractures and faults. After reviewing the fundamentals of horizontal drilling, multi-stage hydraulic fracturing, and stimulation of slip on pre-existing faults, the key factors impacting hydrocarbon production are explored. The final chapters cover environmental impacts and how to mitigate hazards associated with induced seismicity. This text provides an essential overview for students, researchers, and industry professionals interested in unconventional reservoirs.

Short term Hazard Analysis in the Presence of Induced Seismicity

Earthquakes could be caused by various human activities, including mining, withdrawal and injection of fluids underground, and impoundment of reservoirs.

Author: Ganyu Teng

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page:

View: 718

Earthquakes could be caused by various human activities, including mining, withdrawal and injection of fluids underground, and impoundment of reservoirs. They have attracted the public's attention in the last decade due to the increasing number of earthquakes in the central and eastern U.S. The increasing induced seismicity emphasizes the importance of hazard assessment to assist risk management and decision-making during the operation. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis has been widely used to quantify the hazard for natural earthquakes. However, its assumption of Poissonian occurrence is not valid for induced seismicity where the earthquake occurrence varies significantly in time and space due to human activities. This dissertation aims to capture and quantify the changing hazard for induced seismicity, focusing on the short-term felt shaking hazard. The declustered earthquake catalog is often used as the input for probabilistic hazard analysis models. We first evaluate four of the most popular declustering algorithms for annual induced seismic hazard analysis in Oklahoma and Kansas. We show that the choice of different declustering algorithms has significant impacts on the induced seismic hazard analysis. The algorithm by Gardner and Knopoff (1974) removes so many earthquakes that it fails to reflect the changing seismic hazard in the Oklahoma-Kansas region in the past few years. We suggest that algorithms by Reasenberg (1985) and Zaliapin and Ben-Zion (2013) can both capture the changing hazard level in the region while removing dependent earthquakes. This dissertation then introduces two frameworks to quantify short-term hazards for regions with induced seismicity, focusing on hydraulic-fracturing-induced earthquakes in West Texas and wastewater-disposal-induced earthquakes in the Oklahoma-Kansas region. These induced earthquakes differ significantly, so two separate frameworks are developed. For hydraulic-fracturing-induced earthquakes, we develop a method to estimate the hazard level at the production site during the injection, based on past injection and earthquake records. We compare the above frameworks with natural earthquakes and conclude that drivers of short-term seismic hazard vary for different seismicities. For hydraulic-fracturing-induced earthquakes in West Texas, earthquakes clustered around the injection wells dominate the short-term hazard level at production sites. For wastewater-disposal-induced earthquakes, the Poissonian mainshock rate contributes significantly to the short-term hazard level. For natural earthquakes, the aftershock sequences could be crucial. The hazard analysis for hydraulic-fracturing-induced earthquakes shows that small-magnitude earthquakes are important for the felt shaking hazard. Thus, we evaluate the performance of two existing intensity prediction equations (IPEs) for small-magnitude earthquakes at close distances and explore the impact of those earthquakes on felt shaking hazard based on "Did You Feel It (DYFI)" reports and ground motion records in the central U.S. We first compare the DYFI data with ground motion records to ensure that the former is a robust and reliable source to evaluate IPEs. Compared with IPEs, we observe that DYFI reports' intensities attenuate faster, especially for hypocentral distances beyond 10 km. Though the two IPEs do not consider soil conditions, we also explore its effect on intensities and observe that intensities at soft sites are consistently higher than intensities at stiff sites. We then generate a new IPE based on the observed data and perform hazard disaggregation to study the importance of small-magnitude earthquakes on felt shaking. Small magnitude earthquakes at close distances contribute significantly to the hazard of felt shaking. We quantify the seismic hazard after shut-in for hydraulic-fracturing-induced earthquakes. We explore different statistical models to describe the post-shut-in seismicity according to induced earthquakes in Guy-Greenbrier, Arkansas. While the seismicity usually declines after shut-in, there are cases where the seismicity surges after shut-in. We then conduct hazard assessments with and without considering post-shut-in seismicity. Results show that the post-shut-in hazard could impact decision-making significantly. We also propose a logic tree model to consider the uncertainty in model parameters and the possibility of increasing post-shut-in seismicity.


Study of Induced Seismicity for Reservoir Characterization

In general, the thesis work discusses reservoir characterization from two aspects: 1) understanding fractures and faults in reservoirs as seismic sources with induced seismicity, and then inferring other properties of the reservoirs, such ...

Author: Junlun Li (Ph. D.)

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 258

View: 317

The main goal of the thesis is to characterize the attributes of conventional and unconventional reservoirs through passive seismicity. The dissertation is comprised of the development and applications of three new methods, each of which focuses on a different aspect of fractures/faults and the resulting seismicity. In general, the thesis work discusses reservoir characterization from two aspects: 1) understanding fractures and faults in reservoirs as seismic sources with induced seismicity, and then inferring other properties of the reservoirs, such as stress regime and velocity structure (Chapters 2, 3, 4); 2) understanding the fractures in reservoirs as seismic scatterers (Chapter 5). First, I introduce a new method to determine the source mechanisms of the induced earthquakes by incorporating high frequency waveform matching, first P-arrival polarities and average S/P amplitude ratios. The method is applied to 40 induced earthquakes from an oil/gas field in Oman monitored by a sparse near-surface seismic network and a deep borehole seismic network. The majority of the events have a strike direction parallel with the major NE-SW faults in the region, and some events trend parallel with the NW-SE conjugate faults. The results are consistent with the in-situ well breakout measurements and the current knowledge of the stress direction of this region. The source mechanisms of the studied events together with the hypocenter distribution indicate that the microearthquakes are caused by the reactivation of preexisting faults. Then I introduce a new method to locate microseismic events induced by hydraulic fracturing with simultaneous anisotropic velocity inversion using differential arrival times and differential back azimuths. We derive analytical sensitivities for the elastic moduli (Cij) and layer thickness L for the anisotropic velocity inversion. The method is then applied to a microseismic dataset monitoring a Middle Bakken completion in the Beaver Lodge area of North Dakota. Our results show: 1) moderate-to-strong anisotropy exists in all studied sedimentary layers, especially in both the Upper Bakken and Lower Bakken shale formations, where the Thomsen parameters (E and y) can be over 40%; 2) all events selected for high signal-to-noise ratio and used for the joint velocity inversion are located in the Bakken and overlying Lodgepole formations, i.e., no strong events are located in the Three Forks formation below the Bakken; 3) more than half of the strong events are in two clusters at about 100 and 150 meters above the Middle Bakken. Re-occurrence of strong, closely clustered events suggests activation of natural fractures or faults in the Lodgepole formation. Finally, I introduce a new hybrid method to model the shear (SH) wave scattering from arbitrarily shaped fractures embedded in a heterogeneous medium by coupling the boundary element method (BEM) and the finite difference method (FDM) in the frequency domain. The hybrid method can calculate scattering from arbitrarily shaped fractures very rapidly, thus Monte Carlo simulations for characterizing the statistics of fracture attributes can be performed efficiently. The advantages of the hybrid method are demonstrated by modeling waves scattered from tilted fractures embedded in complex media. Interesting behaviors of the scattered waves, such as frequency shift with the scattering order and coherent pattern of scattered waves through strong heterogeneities, are observed. This method can be used to analyze and interpret the scattered coda waves in the microseismic observations, e.g., the reverberating multiples in the Bakken microseismic data which cannot be explained by the determined layered anisotropic velocity model alone.