Diachrony of differential argument marking

Ga marks the possessor of noun phrases (2) and the subject of various types of subordinate or nominalized clauses (3). ... NPs are predominantly marked by the other genitive no or by zero.1 (2) Old Japanese (MYS 4303; MYS 4191) a.

Author: Ilja A. Seržant

Publisher: Language Science Press

ISBN: 3961100853

Category: Electronic books

Page: 563

View: 484

While there are languages that code a particular grammatical role (e.g. subject or direct object) in one and the same way across the board, many more languages code the same grammatical roles differentially. The variables which condition the differential argument marking (or DAM) pertain to various properties of the NP (such as animacy or definiteness) or to event semantics or various properties of the clause. While the main line of current research on DAM is mainly synchronic the volume tackles the diachronic perspective. The tenet is that the emergence and the development of differential marking systems provide a different kind of evidence for the understanding of the phenomenon. The present volume consists of 18 chapters and primarily brings together diachronic case studies on particular languages or language groups including e.g. Finno-Ugric, Sino-Tibetan and Japonic languages. The volume also includes a position paper, which provides an overview of the typology of different subtypes of DAM systems, a chapter on computer simulation of the emergence of DAM and a chapter devoted to the cross-linguistic effects of referential hierarchies on DAM.

Chinese Japanese Competition and the East Asian Security Complex

Zhang Yun, “Sino-Japanese Economic Diplomacy Should Not be Zero Sum” (Zhong-Rijingji waijiao jingzheng buying shi ... China File, November 2, 2015, www.chinafile.com/conversation/how-far-have-chinas-economicreforms-come-over-past-year; ...

Author: Jeffrey Reeves

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315436310

Category: History

Page: 228

View: 504

This volume examines contemporary diplomatic, economic, and security competition between China and Japan in the Asia-Pacific region. The book outlines the role that Sino-Japanese competition plays in East Asian security, an area of study largely overlooked in contemporary writing on Asian security, which tends to focus on US–China relations and/or US hegemony in Asia. The volume focuses on Chinese and Japanese foreign policy under President Xi Jinping and Prime Minister Shinzō Abe, and regional security dynamics within and between Asian states/institutions since 2012. It employs regional security complex theory as a theoretical framework to view Chinese and Japanese competition in the Asian region. In doing so, the volume draws on a "levels of analysis" approach to demonstrate the value in looking at security in the Asia-Pacific from a regional rather than global perspective. The vast majority of existing research on the region’s security tends to focus on great power relations and treats Asia as a sub-region within the larger global security architecture. In contrast, this volume shows how competition between the two largest Asian economies shapes East Asia’s security environment and drives security priorities across Asia’s sub-regions. As such, this collection provides an important contribution to discussion on security in Asia; one with potential to influence both political and military policy makers, security practitioners, and scholars. This book will be of much interest to students of Asian politics, regional security, diplomacy, and international relations.

Global Economic Prospects June 2015

... i lityof e q u ity m a r k e t s -2 -1 0 1 2 2015 2016 2017 G4 long-term interest rates Capital inflows to emerging and ... assuming a range of passthrough rates to Euro Area, U.K. and Japanese bond yields, from zero to 100 percent.

Author: The World Bank

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 1464804850

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 194

View: 400

Global growth is expected to be 2.8 percent in 2015, but is expected to pick up to 3.2 percent in 2016-17. Growth in developing countries and some high-income countries is set to disappoint again this year. The prospect of rising borrowing costs will compound the challenges many developing countries are facing as they adapt to an era of low commodity prices. Risks to this outlook remain tilted to the downside. This edition of Global Economic Prospects includes two Special Features that analyze the policy challenges raised by the two transitions in developing countries: the risks associated with the first U.S. central bank interest rate increase since 2006 and the implications of persistently low commodity prices for low-income countries. Global Economic Prospects is a World Bank Group Flagship Report that examines global economic developments and prospects, with a special focus on developing countries, on a semiannual basis (in January and June). The January edition includes in-depth analyses of topical policy challenges faced by developing countries while the June edition contains shorter analytical pieces.

Historical Dictionary of the Russo Japanese War

In The Russo–Japanese War in Global Perspective: World War Zero, vol. 2, ed. David Wolff et al., 417–31. ... 38:2 (2015). [Online]Available at: http://japanfocus.org/-Akiko-Takenaka/4377. Contemporary Implications Togo, Kazuhiko.

Author: Rotem Kowner

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 1442281847

Category: History

Page: 898

View: 707

The Russo-Japanese War was fought for 19 months (8 February 1904– 5 September 1905) between the empires of Japan and the Russia over the southern part of Manchuria and the Korean Peninsula. While essentially a colonial conflict, the war became a major engagement both in scale and innovation unseen until then. In recent years there has been a growing awareness that this event marks a historical juncture far more important than it was usually taken to be. This second edition of the Historical Dictionary of the Russo-Japanese War offers a major revision of the highly praised first edition, which, by all accounts, has been the standard work on this conflict in any language during the last decade. The book contains a chronology, an introduction, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography. Moreover, the dictionary section has some 800 new or fully revised cross-referenced entries on the battles, weaponry, and major personalities of the war, as well as various international events and conflicts, agreements, schemes, and projects that led to the war. This book is an excellent resource for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about the Russo-Japanese War.

Focus On 100 Most Popular Fantasy Anime and Manga

"Top-Selling Light Novels in Japan by Volume: 2015 (First Half)". Anime News Network. June 2, 2015. Retrieved October 24, 2015. ^ "The Irregular at Magic High School " ^ "Hanabee Announcements page" on May 23, 2015.

Author: Wikipedia contributors

Publisher: e-artnow sro




View: 609

Focus On 100 Most Popular Light Novels

"Top-Selling Light Novels in Japan by Volume: 2015 (First Half)". Anime News Network. June 2, 2015. Retrieved October 24, 2015. ^ "The Irregular at Magic High School " ^ "Hanabee Announcements page" on May 23, 2015.

Author: Wikipedia contributors

Publisher: e-artnow sro

ISBN: 4057664130



View: 206

The Case Against 2 Per Cent Inflation

Interest rates at zero would in no way be equivalent to −3% in real terms just because the Bank of Japan and Fed are trumpeting a 3% inflation ... (2012, August 2). ... Borio, C., Erdem, M., Filardo, A., & Hofmann, B. (2015, March 18).

Author: Brendan Brown

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319893572

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 232

View: 466

This book analyses the controversial and critical issue of 2% inflation targeting, currently practised by central banks in the US, Japan and Europe. Where did the 2% target inflation originate, and for what reason? Do these reasons stand up to scrutiny? This book explores these key questions, contributing to the growing debate that the global 2% inflation standard prescribed by the central banks in the advanced economies globally is actually contributing to the economic malaise of these nations. It presents novel theoretical perspectives, intertwined with historical and market understanding, and features analysis that draws on monetary theory (including Austrian school), behavioural finance, and finance theory. Alongside rigorous analysis of the past and present, the book also features forward looking chapters, exploring how the 2% global inflation standard could collapse and what would ideally follow its demise, including a new look at the role of gold.

Tumultuous Times

Ito (2001, 87–88) notes that “In such a situation, one could argue that 'Since interest rates are at zero, ... Turner (2015). As Bernanke (2003) notes, “Finance Minister Korekiyo Takahashi brilliantly rescued Japan from the Great ...

Author: Masaaki Shirakawa

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300258976

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 536

View: 101

A rare insider's account of the inner workings of the Japanese economy, and the Bank of Japan's monetary policy, by a career central banker The Japanese economy, once the envy of the world for its dynamism and growth, lost its shine after a financial bubble burst in early 1990s and slumped further during the Global Financial Crisis in 2008. It suffered even more damage in 2011, when a severe earthquake set off the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. However, the Bank of Japan soldiered on to combat low inflation, low growth, and low interest rates, and in many ways it served as a laboratory for actions taken by central banks in other parts of the world. Masaaki Shirakawa, who led the bank as governor from 2008 to 2013, provides a rare insider's account of the workings of Japanese economic and monetary policy during this period and how it challenged mainstream economic thinking.

The Money Illusion

By fixing the yen to the dollar, Japanese inflation will gradually move up from zero or negative (in 2001) to something closer to 2% (the US inflation rate). So far, so good. Unfortunately, purchasing power parity only works in the very ...

Author: Scott Sumner

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022677368X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 392

View: 955

"The Money Illusion is George Mason University economist Scott Sumner's end-to-end case for an evolved, less discretionary approach to monetary policy, which he and his cohort have termed "market monetarism." The nominal use of "market" here is telling: Sumner argues that public confidence in central banking institutions like the Fed is central, and as critical as forecasting, to ensuring the health and stability of the economy. To achieve it, he makes a case that monetary policy should be indexed against a pre-set growth trajectory (in the form of a steadily increasing nominal GDP), not regulated ad-hoc through interpretations of short-term market changes. As Sumner tells it, the Fed is simultaneously responsible for the Great Recession and our best safeguard against having it happen again. Part of that is a responsibility to chart a course, and to do so with transparency"--

Introducing Japanese Popular Culture

Tokyo: Tōhō and Universal International. Honolulu Star Advertiser. 2004. “Billboard Hits: Hawai'i Top 10.” Honolulu Star Advertiser. October 15. www.the.honoluluadvertiser.com/article/2004/Oct/15/en/en04a.html [accessed March 2, 2015].

Author: Alisa Freedman

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131752893X

Category: Social Science

Page: 550

View: 687

Specifically designed for use on a range of undergraduate and graduate courses, Introducing Japanese Popular Culture is a comprehensive textbook offering an up-to-date overview of a wide variety of media forms. It uses particular case studies as a way into examining the broader themes in Japanese culture and provides a thorough analysis of the historical and contemporary trends that have shaped artistic production, as well as, politics, society, and economics. As a result, more than being a time capsule of influential trends, this book teaches enduring lessons about how popular culture reflects the societies that produce and consume it. With contributions from an international team of scholars, representing a range of disciplines from history and anthropology to art history and media studies, the book’s sections include: Television Videogames Music Popular Cinema Anime Manga Popular Literature Fashion Contemporary Art Written in an accessible style by a stellar line-up of international contributors, this textbook will be essential reading for students of Japanese culture and society, Asian media and popular culture, and Asian Studies in general.

Japan s Aging Peace

New York Times, January 2, 2011. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/03/world/asia/03japan.html. ——. “Japan Pays ... Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2015. ... Treat, John W. Writing Ground Zero: Japanese Literature and the Atomic Bomb.

Author: Tom Phuong Le

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231553285

Category: Political Science


View: 355

Since the end of World War II, Japan has not sought to remilitarize, and its postwar constitution commits to renouncing aggressive warfare. Yet many inside and outside Japan have asked whether the country should or will return to commanding armed forces amid an increasingly challenging regional and global context and as domestic politics have shifted in favor of demonstrations of national strength. Tom Phuong Le offers a novel explanation of Japan’s reluctance to remilitarize that foregrounds the relationship between demographics and security. Japan’s Aging Peace demonstrates how changing perceptions of security across generations have culminated in a culture of antimilitarism that constrains the government’s efforts to pursue a more martial foreign policy. Le challenges a simple opposition between militarism and pacifism, arguing that Japanese security discourse should be understood in terms of “multiple militarisms,” which can legitimate choices such as the mobilization of the Japan Self-Defense Forces for peacekeeping operations and humanitarian relief missions. Le highlights how factors that are not typically linked to security policy, such as aging and declining populations and gender inequality, have played crucial roles. He contends that the case of Japan challenges the presumption in international relations scholarship that states must pursue the use of force or be punished, showing how widespread normative beliefs have restrained Japanese policy makers. Drawing on interviews with policy makers, military personnel, atomic bomb survivors, museum coordinators, grassroots activists, and other stakeholders, as well as analysis of peace museums and social movements, Japan’s Aging Peace provides new insights for scholars of Asian politics, international relations, and Japanese foreign policy.

Graphic Novels A Guide to Comic Books Manga and More 2nd Edition

in Japan. Vol. 1. 2003. 208pp. 978-1-59307-056-4. Vol. 2. 2004. 180pp. 978-1-59307-057-1. Vol. 3. 2004. 192pp. ... planet. Andrew Bennett is the only person who can stop. Vol. 2. 2014. 192pp. 978-1-4215-7338-0. Tale Zero. 2015. 192pp.

Author: Michael Pawuk

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1440851360

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 719

View: 530

Covering genres from action/adventure and fantasy to horror, science fiction, and superheroes, this guide maps the vast and expanding terrain of graphic novels, describing and organizing titles as well as providing information that will help librarians to build and balance their graphic novel collections and direct patrons to read-alikes. • Introduces users to approximately 1,000 currently popular graphic novels and manga • Organizes titles by genre, subgenre, and theme to facilitate finding read-alikes • Helps librarians build and balance their graphic novel collections

Economic Stagnation in Japan

Eichengreen (2015) also argues that a decline in the relative price of investment goods is associated with secular ... Only Japan was struggling with near zero inflation from 1995 to 2007.4 The GFC occurred from late 2008 to the ...

Author: Dongchul Cho

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1788110447



View: 326

Japan’s dramatic transformation from economic success to economic stagnation offers important policy lessons to advanced countries everywhere that are struggling with stagnation. The term ‘Japanization’ is often used by economists to describe long-term stagnation and deflation. Symptoms include high unemployment, weak economic activity, interest rates near zero, quantitative easing, and population aging. In the global context, what can governments do to mitigate the downward trends experienced by Japan? This judiciously timed book investigates in depth the causes of Japan’s ‘lost decades’ versus the real recovery achieved by the United States, and the lessons that can be learned.


The 2015 CA increased to about 31⁄3 percent of GDP from 0.8 percent of GDP in 2014, due to a significant decline in the energy import bill (by about 2 percent of GDP) and an improvement in the services balance reflecting higher tourism ...

Author: International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: International Monetary Fund

ISBN: 147552210X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 74

View: 110

This 2016 Article IV Consultation highlights that the economic growth of Japan has slowed owing to weak private consumption and sluggish investment and that inflation has lost its forward momentum. Although financial conditions remain accommodative, falling stock prices and the appreciation of the yen have resulted in a modest tightening. The outlook for growth and inflation remains subdued. The economy is expected to expand at a moderate pace of about 0.3 percent in 2016, before slowing to 0.1 percent in 2017, excluding the possible effect of the yet-to-be-adopted economic stimulus package.

WTO E commerce and Information Technologies

Other proposals advocated a zero - for - zero approach for particular sectors.166 Only two WTO Members ... citing the failed efforts to add these products in the ITA II negotiations.169 Japan proposes a five - year phase - in with ...

Author: Sacha Wunsch-Vincent

Publisher: New York : United Nations Information and Communication Technologies Task Force


Category: Electronic commerce

Page: 175

View: 297

The purpose of this paper is to take stock and explain most of the IT- and ecommerce- related WTO issues. It provides a historical overview of the WTO's role with regard to e-commerce and IT trade between 1995 and 2003 and provides the contextual background to the complex set of existing rules, categories and debates. Its aim is to inform the representatives of developing nations, civil society, and others who want or need to understand more about the WTO's role in Information Technology governance and policy. Three key questions are addressed throughout the paper: How has the WTO approached e-commerce so far, and what results have been achieved? How can e-commerce be deconstructed into "baskets" of IT goods and services to clarify the issues at stake? How are the interests of developing nations included and addressed in the WTO's current approach to e-commerce?

Global Financial Stability Report October 2015

Journal of International Economics 88 (2): 284–98. Kamada, Koichiro, and Tomohiro Sugo. 2006. “Evaluating Japanese Monetary Policy under the Non-Negativity Constraint on Nominal Short-Term Interest Rates.” Bank of Japan Working Paper ...

Author: International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: International Monetary Fund

ISBN: 1513582046

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 131

View: 966

The October 2015 Global Financial Stability Report finds that, despite an improvement in financial stability in advanced economies, risks continue to rotate toward emerging markets. The global financial outlook is clouded by a triad of policy challenges: emerging market vulnerabilities, legacy issues from the crisis in advanced economies, and weak systemic market liquidity. With more vulnerable balance sheets in emerging market companies and banks, firms in these countries are more susceptible to financial stress, economic downturn, and capital outflows. Recent market developments such as slumping commodity prices, China’s bursting equity bubble, and pressure on exchange rates underscore these challenges. The prospect of the U.S. Federal Reserve gradually raising interest rates points to an unprecedented adjustment in the global financial system as financial conditions and risk premiums “normalize” from historically low levels alongside rising policy rates and a modest cyclical recovery. The report also examines the factors that influence levels of liquidity in securities markets, as well as the implications of low liquidity. Currently, market liquidity is being supported by benign cyclical conditions. Although it is too early to assess the impact of recent regulatory changes on market liquidity, changes in market structure, such as larger holdings of corporate bonds by mutual funds, appear to have increased the fragility of liquidity. Finally, the report studies the growing level of corporate debt in emerging markets, which quadrupled between 2004 and 2014. The report finds that global drivers have played an increasing role in leverage growth, issuance, and spreads. Moreover, higher leverage has been associated with, on average, rising foreign currency exposures. It also finds that despite weaker balance sheets, firms have managed to issue bonds at better terms as a result of favorable financial conditions.

The End of Cool Japan

Ethical, Legal, and Cultural Challenges to Japanese Popular Culture Mark McLelland. Nystrom, Kyle (2013) Complex Identity in Japanese ... Thistlethwaite, Nancy (2015) “About Manga Acquisitions: Part 2,” Official Shojo Beat, March 10, ...

Author: Mark McLelland

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317269373

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 106

Today’s convergent media environment offers unprecedented opportunities for sourcing and disseminating previously obscure popular culture material from Japan. However, this presents concerns regarding copyright, ratings and exposure to potentially illegal content which are serious problems for those teaching and researching about Japan. Despite young people’s enthusiasm for Japanese popular culture, these concerns spark debate about whether it can be judged harmful for youth audiences and could therefore herald the end of ‘cool Japan’. This collection brings together Japan specialists in order to identify key challenges in using Japanese popular culture materials in research and teaching. It addresses issues such as the availability of unofficially translated and distributed Japanese material; the emphasis on adult-themes, violence, sexual scenes and under-age characters; and the discrepancies in legislation and ratings systems across the world. Considering how these issues affect researchers, teachers, students and fans in the US, Canada, Australia, China, Japan and elsewhere in Asia, the contributors discuss the different ways in which academic and fan practices are challenged by local regulations. Illustrating from personal experience the sometimes fraught nature of teaching about ‘cool Japan’, they suggest ways in which Japanese Studies as a discipline needs to develop clearer guidelines for teaching and research, especially for new scholars entering the field. As the first collection to identify some of the real problems faced by teachers and researchers of Japanese popular culture as well as the students over whom they have a duty of care, this book will be of great interest to students and scholars of Japanese Studies and Cultural Studies.

Banking and Economic Rent in Asia

2). Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 269–324. Hellmann, T., Murdock, K., and Stiglitz, J. (1997) 'Financial Restraint: ... (2015) FY2015 Survey (the 27th) Report on Overseas Business Operations by Japanese Manufacturing Companies.

Author: Yasushi Suzuki

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317192362

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 204

View: 915

A stable and sound financial system plays a critical role in mediating funds from surplus units to investors, making it a prerequisite for economic development. Financial intermediaries have been vulnerable to adverse changes in the local and global economy and experienced frequent bubble-and-bust episodes historically. Analyses of financial crises reveal that the incentive created by neo-liberal financial principles is inconsistent with stable financial systems, and viable solutions require structuring institutions in a way that incentives are well aligned with the fundamental principles of financial systems. By drawing on the theoretical framework of the financial restraint model, this book analyses financial sectors’ rents or bank rents and their effects on banks’ performance and stability, and presents evidence on the relationship between rent and incentive through case studies of both developed and developing countries.

Regional Economic Integration and Dispute Settlement in East Asia

Product Coverage Singapore grants zero-tariff treatment to all goods of Japanese origin.479 As Singapore's MFN rates on most ... In 2015, bilateral trade was reported to have amounted to S$ 46.481 billion (=US$ 34.19 billion).487 2.

Author: Anna G Tevini

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1782254870

Category: Law

Page: 592

View: 768

The accession of the People's Republic of China to the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001 significantly transformed the global economy both de facto and de jure. At the regional level, China's WTO accession served as an important catalyst for the establishment of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) in East Asia. This was a novel development for the region, since East Asian States had previously followed a largely informal, market-driven approach to regional economic integration. By contrast, rules-based economic integration involving East Asian States was traditionally limited to multilateral integration under the GATT/WTO framework. This book systematically analyses and explains the development, nature and challenges of rules-based regional economic integration in East Asia with particular attention to the region's first four RTAs. While also addressing the socio-economic, historical and political factors influencing the development of RTAs in East Asia, the book focuses on the legal institutions governing economic integration in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), as well as under the ASEAN–China Comprehensive Economic Co-Operation Agreement (ACFTA), the Japan–Singapore New Age Economic Partnership Agreement (JSEPA), and the Mainland China–Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (CEPA). The book provides a systematic, comparative account of the scope, depth and (hard law versus soft law) quality of rules-based economic integration achieved under these four RTAs in the areas of trade in goods and services, investment liberalisation and protection, labour mobility, and dispute settlement.