Environmental Modelling

The type-2 model is a quantitative description based on 'case-by-case' predictive power. It must be recalibrated on new data each time the initial and boundary conditions change. Type-2 models are comparatively static; they use trends ...

Author: John Wainwright

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470749113

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 494

View: 765

Simulation models are an established method used to investigate processes and solve practical problems in a wide variety of disciplines. Central to the concept of this second edition is the idea that environmental systems are complex, open systems. The authors present the diversity of approaches to dealing with environmental complexity and then encourage readers to make comparisons between these approaches and between different disciplines. Environmental Modelling: Finding Simplicity in Complexity 2nd edition is divided into four main sections: An overview of methods and approaches to modelling. State of the art for modelling environmental processes Tools used and models for management Current and future developments. The second edition evolves from the first by providing additional emphasis and material for those students wishing to specialize in environmental modelling. This edition: Focuses on simplifying complex environmental systems. Reviews current software, tools and techniques for modelling. Gives practical examples from a wide variety of disciplines, e.g. climatology, ecology, hydrology, geomorphology and engineering. Has an associated website containing colour images, links to WWW resources and chapter support pages, including data sets relating to case studies, exercises and model animations. This book is suitable for final year undergraduates and postgraduates in environmental modelling, environmental science, civil engineering and biology who will already be familiar with the subject and are moving on to specialize in the field. It is also designed to appeal to professionals interested in the environmental sciences, including environmental consultants, government employees, civil engineers, geographers, ecologists, meteorologists, and geochemists.

Encyclopedia of Environmental Change

Criticisms of MODELS include oversimplification because of the limited number of parameters and the strong dependence of the ... Landscape response to environmental change varies through time and space and operates at different scales.

Author: John A Matthews

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1473928192

Category: Science

Page: 1496

View: 264

Accessibly written by a team of international authors, the Encyclopedia of Environmental Change provides a gateway to the complex facts, concepts, techniques, methodology and philosophy of environmental change. This three-volume set illustrates and examines topics within this dynamic and rapidly changing interdisciplinary field. The encyclopedia includes all of the following aspects of environmental change: Diverse evidence of environmental change, including climate change and changes on land and in the oceans Underlying natural and anthropogenic causes and mechanisms Wide-ranging local, regional and global impacts from the polar regions to the tropics Responses of geo-ecosystems and human-environmental systems in the face of past, present and future environmental change Approaches, methodologies and techniques used for reconstructing, dating, monitoring, modelling, projecting and predicting change Social, economic and political dimensions of environmental issues, environmental conservation and management and environmental policy Over 4,000 entries explore the following key themes and more: Conservation Demographic change Environmental management Environmental policy Environmental security Food security Glaciation Green Revolution Human impact on environment Industrialization Landuse change Military impacts on environment Mining and mining impacts Nuclear energy Pollution Renewable resources Solar energy Sustainability Tourism Trade Water resources Water security Wildlife conservation The comprehensive coverage of terminology includes layers of entries ranging from one-line definitions to short essays, making this an invaluable companion for any student of physical geography, environmental geography or environmental sciences.

Workshop Report on the Environmental Implications of Global Change

There could be large time lags in the response of species and biomes to climate change . The large shifts in vegetation patterns shown by the static models can only occur through the expansion and displacement of present distributions .

Author: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. General Assembly

Publisher: IUCN

ISBN: 9782831700892

Category: Climatic changes

Page: 164

View: 781

Predictive Species and Habitat Modeling in Landscape Ecology

Unfortunately, predictions of change through time often rely on models observing change across space. ... In the case of species distribution modeling, the absence of historical species observations and/or environmental data often ...

Author: C. Ashton Drew

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1441973907

Category: Science

Page: 313

View: 919

Most projects in Landscape Ecology, at some point, define a species-habitat association. These models are inherently spatial, dealing with landscapes and their configurations. Whether coding behavioral rules for dispersal of simulated organisms through simulated landscapes, or designing the sampling extent of field surveys and experiments in real landscapes, landscape ecologists must make assumptions about how organisms experience and utilize the landscape. These convenient working postulates allow modelers to project the model in time and space, yet rarely are they explicitly considered. The early years of landscape ecology necessarily focused on the evolution of effective data sources, metrics, and statistical approaches that could truly capture the spatial and temporal patterns and processes of interest. Now that these tools are well established, we reflect on the ecological theories that underpin the assumptions commonly made during species distribution modeling and mapping. This is crucial for applying models to questions of global sustainability. Due to the inherent use of GIS for much of this kind of research, and as several authors’ research involves the production of multicolored map figures, there would be an 8-page color insert. Additional color figures could be made available through a digital archive, or by cost contributions of the chapter authors. Where applicable, would be relevant chapters’ GIS data and model code available through a digital archive. The practice of data and code sharing is becoming standard in GIS studies, is an inherent method of this book, and will serve to add additional research value to the book for both academic and practitioner audiences.

Effects of Climate Change on Birds

Their framework starts with land use and climate change models developed at a regional scale. Vegetation changes through time are predicted under alternative future scenarios using an individualbased plant community model.

Author: Anders Pape Møller

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191576662

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 410

Climate change affects all living organisms; it has done so in the past and will do so in the future. However, current climate change is exceptional both in terms of the rate of change and the impact of multiple types of global change on individuals, populations, species, and ecosystems. Effects of Climate Change on Birds provides an exhaustive and up-to-date synthesis of the science of climate change as it relates to birds. Compared with any other class of animals, birds provide more long-term data and extensive time series (some dating back more than 100 years), a more geographically and taxonomically diverse source of information, and a longer tradition of extensive research. In fact this research record exceeds what is available in all other organisms combined.

Exploring Environmental Change Using an Integrative Method

These seemingly naive examples do however demonstrate the universality of models. We use models intuitively all the time. Having suggested that models are perhaps best understood as subjectively defined representations of other things ...

Author: Mark Lemon

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0203304039

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 264

View: 347

This text draws upon 'complex systems' thinking to introduce a policy-related integrative method for diagnosing and managing environmental change. This conveys how existing intellectual resources can be exploited to explore environmental decision issues without resoring to such devices as 'meta-methods' or 'meta-disciplines'.

Timescales and Environmental Change

However, the very nature of climatic and environmental change can be an obstacle to the representation of change. ... By contrast, a preliminary attempt to model the CET using stochastic time series models is encouraging ...

Author: Graham Chapman

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134787545

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 112

Time is an unstated but ever present element in all debates about environmental change - and the subtext of many disagreements. Geomorphologists think in the context of millions of years, politicians in election terms, the media in decades, and the public ceases to worry about global warming with one bad summer. This volume brings together experts from a diverse range of disciplines, to offer a range of both temporal and geographical perspectives. It does not seek to provide clear answers about right time-scales, but rather to encourage the reader, from whatever perspective, to think about change and environmental issues in a new light through different time-scales.

Environmental Change

The UKCIP ( 2002 ) briefing report contains state of the art examples of regional climate scenarios for time slices ... these include those associated with using only a single global model , with additional uncertainties arising from ...

Author: Frank Oldfield

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139445696

Category: Science


View: 153

Environmental Change: Key Issues and Alternative Approaches describes and explains the significance of past and contemporary environmental and climatic change. It outlines the conceptual framework for studies of environmental change by posing key questions and presenting the results of relevant research. It provides a non-specialist introduction to models in environmental change research and to the study of past environmental changes. Covering the last 400 000 years, special emphasis is placed on past periods of rapid warming, the nature of climatic variability over the last 1000 years and the dramatic and accelerating changes in the Earth system heralded by the industrial revolution. The book is extensively referenced and illustrated. This book provides a balanced, non-specialist basis for understanding and exploring the scientific issues underlying global change for advanced undergraduates in geography, environmental, earth, biological and ecological sciences.