Neighborhood Poverty

11 Lessons Learned and Future Directions for Research on the Neighborhoods
in Which Children Live Jeanne Brooks - Gunn , Greg J. Duncan , Tama Leventhal
, and J. Lawrence Aber in this first volume of Neighborhood Poverty , our ...

Author: Jeanne Brooks-Gunn

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 9780871541451

Category: Social Science

Page: 356

View: 841

Perhaps the most alarming phenomenon in American cities has been the transformation of many neighborhoods into isolated ghettos where poverty is the norm and violent crime, drug use, out-of-wedlock births, and soaring school dropout rates are rampant. Public concern over these destitute areas has focused on their most vulnerable inhabitants—children and adolescents. How profoundly does neighborhood poverty endanger their well-being and development? Is the influence of neighborhood more powerful than that of the family? Neighborhood Poverty: Context and Consequences for Children approaches these questions with an insightful and wide-ranging investigation into the effect of community poverty on children's physical health, cognitive and verbal abilities, educational attainment, and social adjustment. This two-volume set offers the most current research and analysis from experts in the fields of child development, social psychology, sociology and economics. Drawing from national and city-based sources, Volume I reports the empirical evidence concerning the relationship between children and community. As the essays demonstrate, poverty entails a host of problems that affects the quality of educational, recreational, and child care services. Poor neighborhoods usually share other negative features—particularly racial segregation and a preponderance of single mother families—that may adversely affect children. Yet children are not equally susceptible to the pitfalls of deprived communities. Neighborhood has different effects depending on a child's age, race, and gender, while parenting techniques and a family's degree of community involvement also serve as mitigating factors. Volume II incorporates empirical data on neighborhood poverty into discussions of policy and program development. The contributors point to promising community initiatives and suggest methods to strengthen neighborhood-based service programs for children. Several essays analyze the conceptual and methodological issues surrounding the measurement of neighborhood characteristics. These essays focus on the need to expand scientific insight into urban poverty by drawing on broader pools of ethnographic, epidemiological, and quantitative data. Volume II explores the possibilities for a richer and more well-rounded understanding of neighborhood and poverty issues. To grasp the human cost of poverty, we must clearly understand how living in distressed neighborhoods impairs children's ability to function at every level. Neighborhood Poverty explores the multiple and complex paths between community, family, and childhood development. These two volumes provide and indispensible guide for social policy and demonstrate the power of interdisciplinary social science to probe complex social issues.

Neighborhood Upgrading

Chapter Neighborhood Upgrading: A Literature Review Since the end of World
War II, federal housing policy has shifted from new construction and slum
clearance to housing rehabilitation and neighborhood upgrading.1 With the ...

Author: David P. Varady

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9780887062995

Category: Social Science

Page: 184

View: 601

Neighborhood Upgrading examines the effectiveness of government-subsidized housing rehabilitation programs in reversing patterns of neighborhood decline. Varady takes a realistic look at the dilemma facing policy planners attempting to effect changes on a local level. His is the first study to assess the impact of neighborhood ethnic and social class changes on mobility and investment decisions. There has been little empirical research on neighborhood upgrading where improvement results from the efforts of existing residents aides by government assistance. Varady' study makes a major contribution in illuminating the variables of this process. Focusing on the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's Urban Homesteading Demonstration (UHD), he presents disturbing findings that are applicable to other neighborhood preservation programs such as the Neighborhood Housing Service (NHS) and the Community Development Block Grant Program. He argues that the future success of such programs lies in the ability of planners and policy makers to develop and implement policies addressing the issues that cause neighborhood decline--poverty, crime, and discrimination.

Neighborhood Planning and Community Based Development

have been led to believe are self - contained idealized neighborhoods , Suttles
contends , are more often than not the product of " some outsider ; a government
surveyor , a developer , a Realtor , founding father , booster , or newspaper man
 ...

Author: William Peterman

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780761911999

Category: Political Science

Page: 191

View: 764

Exploring the promise and limits of grassroots strategies for community organizing, development and planning, this book looks at how they can be used in the revitalization and maintenance of urban neighborhoods. The book presents a number of case studies from the United States, analyzing the reasons for success and failure, and concludes with recommendations in the form of a "tool kit" for planners and community leaders.

Neighborhood Tokyo

CHAPTER FOUR Community Services and Neighborhood Events THE SLIGHT
MORNING C H I L L of what will soon become a hot Sunday in July nips a sleepy
group of men standing outside Yamamura's construction office. Ku-chan the ...

Author: Theodore C. Bestor

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804717974

Category: Social Science

Page: 347

View: 508

In the vastness of Tokyo these are tiny social units, and by the standards that most Americans would apply, they are perhaps far too small, geographically and demographically, to be considered "neighborhoods." Still, to residents of Tokyo and particularly to the residents of any given subsection of the city, they are socially significant and geographically distinguishable divisions of the urban landscape. In neighborhoods such as these, overlapping and intertwining associations and institutions provide an elaborate and enduring framework for local social life, within which residents are linked to one another not only through their participation in local organizations, but also through webs of informal social, economic, and political ties. This book is an ethnographic analysis of the social fabric and internal dynamics of one such neighborhood: Miyamoto-cho, a pseudonym for a residential and commercial district in Tokyo where the author carried out fieldwork from June 1979 to May 1981, and during several summers since. It is a study of the social construction and maintenance of a neighborhood in a society where such communities are said to be outmoded, even antithetical to the major trends of modernization and social change that have transformed Japan in the last hundred years. It is a study not of tradition as an aspect of historical continuity, but of traditionalism: the manipulation, invention, and recombination of cultural patterns, symbols, and motifs so as to legitimate contemporary social realities by imbuing them with a patina of venerable historicity. It is a study of often subtle and muted struggles between insiders and outsiders over those most ephemeral of the community's resources, its identity and sense of autonomy, enacted in the seemingly insubstantial idioms of cultural tradition.

The World s Richest Neighborhood

By 1900, Pittsburgh's East End neighborhood was the world's richest. It was the
rich suburb of what had become America's fifth largest city and the world's
manufacturing metropolis. In a short walk, one might run into a member of the
Carnegie ...

Author: Quentin R. Skrabec

Publisher: Algora Publishing

ISBN: 0875867952

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 233

View: 173

The residents of Pittsburgh's East End controlled as much a 40% of America's assets at the turn of the last century. Mail was delivered seven times a day to keep America's greatest capitalists in touch with their factories, banks, and markets. The neighborhood had its own private station of the Pennsylvania Railroad with a daily non-stop express to New York's financial district. Many of the world's most powerful men — princes, artists, politicians, scientists, and American Presidents such as William McKinley, Teddy Roosevelt, William Taft, Calvin Coolidge, and Herbert Hoover, came to visit the hard-working and high-flying captains of industry. Two major corporations, Standard Oil and ALCOA Aluminum were formed in East End homes. It was the first neighborhood to adopt the telephone with direct lines from the homes to the biggest banks in Pittsburgh, which at the time was America's fifth largest city. The story of this neighborhood is a story of America at its greatest point of wealth and includes rags-to-riches stories, political corruption, scandals, and greed. The history of this unique piece of American geography makes for enjoyable reading that will satisfy a large cross section of readers.

Neighborhood Challenge

11. Inner-Caspian. Neighborhood. Challenge. for. the. EU: Significance. and.
Characteristics. of. an. Emerging. Energy. Hub. Mert Bilgin The neighborhood
concept of Europe drastically changed in the aftermath of the Soviet
disintegration, ...

Author: Bezen Balamir-Coskun

Publisher: Universal-Publishers

ISBN: 1599429683

Category: History

Page: 423

View: 300

One of the intriguing questions of the post-Cold War era has been whether the EU will play a major global role in world politics as non-traditional threats and challenges came to the forefront. Launching new policies such as the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the European Security and Defence Policy and the European Neighborhood Policy (ENP) have been considered important steps in the EU's evolution as a regional and possibly global actor. Neighborhood Challenge analyzes critical aspects of the European Union's relations with its neighbours, by extending its analysis beyond the ENP. Unlike existing books on the subject, the volume covers the entire neighborhood from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus to North Africa; from the Western Balkans to the South Caucasus and Central Asia. Such an extensive overview of EU policies toward its neighbors is a timely and valuable contribution to European Studies literature. This book can be used as a tool for both academicians and practitioners who specialize in European foreign and security policy; as a textbook in European Union foreign policy courses both at the undergraduate and graduate level; and as a comprehensive reference book for postgraduate students writing dissertations on European foreign and security policy in general and European Neighborhood Policy in particular. The contributions analyze challenges and prospects posed by countries neighboring the EU and the effectiveness of EU policy in dealing with these agendas. Region-focused chapters examine the EU's politics toward the Western Balkans, Middle East, CIS, and the Black Sea; country-focused chapters explore aspects of Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Iran, Bosnia, Kosovo; and thematically-focused chapters deal with energy security, organized crime, and other issues. Neighborhood Challenge is intended to contribute to the existing literature on EU foreign and security policy in two ways: First, its material is not restricted to the ENP. Instead, it addresses all EU neighbors in a large region and their position in European security. The authors argue that not only the countries in the immediate neighborhood of the EU but also those located in relatively far away regions have a role to play in European Union foreign affairs. Secondly, many of the contributions were written by experts living in countries which neighbor the EU. Their contributions lend new ideas and insight to the relevant literature on EU security and foreign policy.

Chicago s Beverly Morgan Park Neighborhood

These events have given residents a chance to socialize , enjoy a favorite
pastime , display their patriotism , and show off their neighborhood . Change is
inevitable in every community , and the Ridge was no exception . A new
expressway ...

Author: Joseph C. Oswald

Publisher: Arcadia Publishing

ISBN: 9780738531533

Category: History

Page: 128

View: 620

Offers a pictorial history of Chicago's "Village in the City," the Beverly/Morgan Park community developed as a country retreat for Chicago's social, political, and economic elite after the Great Chicago Fire of 1871.

Neighborhood Effects on Crime and Youth Violence

representation of the population of households with teenage children. The ethnic
and racial characteristics of the survey's respondents, therefore, may resemble
the actual ethnic characteristics of households with teens in these neighborhoods
 ...

Author: John Michael MacDonald

Publisher: Rand Corporation

ISBN: 0833046632

Category: Political Science

Page: 117

View: 229

Business improvement districts (BIDs) collect assessments and invest in local service provisions and activities, such as place promotion, street cleaning, and public safety. Such activities can help reduce crime and youth violence by increasing informal social control, reducing signs of disorder and blight, improving order maintenance, and enriching job opportunities. This report examines BIDs1 impact on crime and youth violence in Los Angeles.

Neighborhood Context and the Development of African American Children

CHAPTER 1 The Role of Neighborhood Characteristics in Child Development T
The evidence of worsening life conditions , concentration of poverty ( Jargowsky
& Bane , 1991 ; Pandey & Coulton , 1994 ; Wilson , 1991 ) and high degree of ...

Author: Maria Loreto Martinez

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9780815335382

Category: Social Science

Page: 153

View: 779

Perceived Neighborhood Scale -- Neighborhood Influences on Development -- Strengths of the Study -- Limitations of the Study -- Directions for Future Research -- Implications for Intervention -- Appendix 1. Structural Equation Modeling -- Appendix 2. Pearson Correlations Coefficients for Variables in Longitudinal Models -- Appendix 3. Pearson Correlation Coefficients for Variables in Cross-sectional Models -- References -- Index

Neighborhood Structure Crime and Fear of Crime

Testing Bursik and Grasmick's Neighborhood Control Theory Clete Snell.
Baltimore ( Taylor et al . , 1984 ) , Great Britain ( Sampson and Groves , 1989 ) ,
and the Neighborhood Project with sites in Denver , Chicago , and Philadelphia (
Elliott ...

Author: Clete Snell

Publisher: LFB Scholarly Publishing LLC

ISBN: 9781931202077

Category: Law

Page: 159

View: 629

In this collection, Esther Raizen explores the significance and value of Hebrew poetry written in response to the wars in which Israel was involved during the last fifty years. The anthology includes the works of many poets, some as well known as Nathan Altherman and Yehudah Amichai and others less known. The poems, presented in both English and Hebrew, depict war as viewed by the soldier, as reflected upon by civilians, and as a force giving rise to the creation of poetry. Raizen explores in an introductory essay the issue of whether poetry written with a defined political message and in the context of certain historical events can function adequately on the aesthetic level. She also tracks the changes in the characteristics of Israeli war poetry from 1948 to 1991, beginning with the glorified patriotism expected in the 1930s-1940s and progressing to the critical ideas in the later years, during which poetry is characterized by understatement and cynicism.

Dear Mister Rogers Does It Ever Rain in Your Neighborhood

Author: Fred Rogers

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9781101161692

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 208

View: 343

Inspiring letters from the beloved host of PBS’s Mister Rogers' Neighborhood, the subject of the acclaimed documentary Won't You Be My Neighbor? and a forthcoming biopic starring Tom Hanks Every question that a child or parent asks is important, and no one understood that better than Fred Rogers, the iconic television neighbor who visited our homes for decades. In this moving collection of letters to him and his replies, he encourages parents and teachers to cherish the questions and comments that come from children and crafts caring, thoughtful responses to them. With deep sensitivity and sincerity, he addresses real-life issues in chapters arranged by theme: his life, Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood, feelings and fears, family relationships, and even grief. Drawing on a lifetime of studying and considering healthy child development, this unique gathering of correspondence offers a timeless guide to childhood as well as parenting. Dear Mister Rogers is an inspiration to parents and educators and a delight for all those interested in the unique way children see and wonder about the world.

Neighborhood Conditions

Neighborhood Government in Chicago's 44th Ward . Champaign , Illinois , Stipes
, 1979 . The editors present detailed accounts of how informal neighborhood
government was made to work through a covenant between community residents
 ...

Author: United States. Congress. Joint Economic Committee

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Block grants

Page: 80

View: 932


Neighborhood and Community Environments

But occasionally these systems of neighborhood regulation fail, and conflicts
erupt. This chapter explores systems of neighborhood regulation and the
conditions under which these systems fail. It is an ethnographic study of four
small ...

Author: Irwin Altman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1489919627

Category: Psychology

Page: 298

View: 345

This ninth volume in the series deals with a fascinating and complex topic in the environment and behavior field. Neighborhoods and com munities are in various stages of formation and transition in almost every society, nation, and culture. A variety of political, economic, and social factors have resulted in the formation of new communities and the transformation of older communities. Thus we see nomadic people set tling into stable communities, new towns sprouting up around the world, continuing suburban sprawl, simultaneous deterioration, re newal and gentrification of urban areas, demographic changes in com munities, and so on. As in previous volumes, the range of content, theory, and methods represented in the various chapters is intended to be broadly based, with perspectives rooted in several disciplines-anthropology, history, psychology, sociology, urban studies. Although many other disciplines also play an important role in the study and understanding of neigh borhoods and community environments, we hope that the contributions to this volume will at least present readers with a broad sampling-if not a comprehensive treatment-of the topic.

The Politics of Neighborhood Governance in China

Neighborhood Organizations: An International Perspective The above section
lays out the analytical framework that is derived from the practice of grassroots
organizations in various countries. In order to better situate this book in the
literature, ...

Author: Jianfeng Wang

Publisher: Universal-Publishers

ISBN: 1599427079

Category: Political Science

Page: 204

View: 859

For the nearly three decades of coexistence between economic liberalization and political authoritarianism, China remains as an anomaly to the liberal mantra of our time. This book explores a segment of the China Paradox, the state-society interaction channeled by the Residents Committee. Being the largest urban neighborhood organization, the committee deserves study because of its controversial status between ordinary residents it claims to represent and the authoritarian state. The committee enters the discourse as a directly congruent example of the same paradox that the whole China displays, when it is endowed with important, yet tension-changed statutory functions ranging from social control to service provision and neighborhood self-governance. How, and under what conditions, does the committee carry out its functions? What can be learned about changing state-society relations from the dynamics of neighborhood politics in China? This book draws its analytical framework on the theoretical models of state penetration, civil disobedience, corporatism, and synergy, as well as on the practices of American, Cuban, and Japanese neighborhood organizations and the Chinese Rural Villagers Committee. Four distinctive Residents Committees in Tianjin City are studied in detail, and their functions are identified and explained primarily through their structural connections with the lowest state organ in cities, the street office, and residents (including other neighborhood organizations and activists). The book reveals multiple possibilities of Chinese social/political transformation. Among them emerges a promising trend of state-society cooperation, which is realigning and accommodating political authoritarianism and economic openness into a seemingly sustainable pattern of development at the urban grassroots. Referred to as an "amphibian" organization spanning public-private division, the committee highlights the limits of the state-society antithesis in the study of political transformation. The observed patterns of neighborhood politics also raise caution against the universal applicability of the liberal norm of civil society to countries like China with distinctive conditions from which the original norm is present and constructed.

Variable Neighborhood Search

Therefore, our approach is to propose a variable neighborhood search
metaheuristic to solve these problems. The remainder of this paper is as follows:
The next two sections are dedicated to present variable neighborhood search
and fixed ...

Author: Angelo Sifaleras

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3030158438

Category: Computers

Page: 315

View: 303

This book constitutes the refereed post-conference proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Variable Neighborhood Search, ICVNS 2018, held in Sithonia, Greece, in October 2018. ICVNS 2018 received 49 submissions of which 23 full papers were carefully reviewed and selected. VNS is a metaheuristic based on systematic changes in the neighborhood structure within a search for solving optimization problems and related tasks. The main goal of ICVNS 2018 was to provide a stimulating environment in which researchers coming from various scientific fields could share and discuss their knowledge, expertise, and ideas related to the VNS metaheuristic and its applications.

Neighborhood and Life Chances

for the further investigation of which neighborhood features matter and explain
the lasting importance of childhood neighborhood conditions. Upon discovering
substantial child neighbor correlations in adult health outcomes, I analyze the ...

Author: Harriet B. Newburger

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 081220008X

Category: Social Science

Page: 392

View: 539

Does the place where you lived as a child affect your health as an adult? To what degree does your neighbor's success influence your own potential? The importance of place is increasingly recognized in urban research as an important variable in understanding individual and household outcomes. Place matters in education, physical health, crime, violence, housing, family income, mental health, and discrimination—issues that determine the quality of life, especially among low-income residents of urban areas. Neighborhood and Life Chances: How Place Matters in Modern America brings together researchers from a range of disciplines to present the findings of studies in the fields of education, health, and housing. The results are intriguing and surprising, particularly the debate over Moving to Opportunity, an experiment conducted by the Department of Housing and Urban Development, designed to test directly the effects of relocating individuals away from areas of concentrated poverty. Its results, while strong in some respects, showed very different outcomes for boys and girls, with girls more likely than boys to experience positive outcomes. Reviews of the literature in education and health, supplemented by new research, demonstrate that the problems associated with residing in a negative environment are indisputable, but also suggest the directions in which solutions may lie. The essays collected in this volume give readers a clear sense of the magnitude of contemporary challenges in metropolitan America and of the role that place plays in reinforcing them. Although the contributors suggest many practical immediate interventions, they also recognize the vital importance of continued long-term efforts to rectify place-based limitations on lifetime opportunities.

Neighborhood Politics

NEIGHBORHOOD. CHANGE,. AND. GRASSROOTS. ACTION. The quarter
century from the late 1960s to the early 1990s witnessed an enormous variety of
developments in Uptown and Sharrow: the high-water mark and ebbing of
municipally ...

Author: Larry Bennett

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135596891

Category: Political Science

Page: 284

View: 375

First Published in 1997. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Neighborhood Self Management

This background provides insight into the development of neighborhood
community organizations as a vehiclefor providing services.In recent years,
organizations that encourage citizen involvement have become increasingly
influentialinthe ...

Author: Hillel Schmid

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 146151259X

Category: Social Science

Page: 168

View: 508

Over the past two decades, Western countries have witnessed changes in the governance of local authorities. During that period, governmental authority and traditional governmental functions have gradually shifted to local authorities at the municipal level. In keeping with this trend, the governments have attempted to diminish their role in the provision of social, human, and communal services and encouraged nongovernmental organizations to penetrate the arena of services previously supplied by the government. In the community domain, neighborhood organizations that encourage citizen involvement and participation in policymaking and decisions concerning their life and well-being have gained increasing influence. In this regard, the emergence of the community council and its development as a unique entity in the municipal arena is particularly noteworthy. The community council reflects an advanced stage in the development of community and voluntary organizations that lacked the organizational and professional infrastructure, know-how, and technologies, as well as the competence to cope with the powerful governmental and municipal establish ment. The community council reflects the developed civic consciousness of the city's residents, who demand responses to their changing and heterogeneous needs. In this context, neighborhood residents have sought to establish a powerful and influential organization that serves them and represents their interests vis-a.-vis the municipal and governmental authorities.

Neighborhood Networks for Humane Mental Health Care

Anomie Neighborhood. This neighborhood is disorganized and lacks
participation patterns and a sense of identification with local or large community.
The major views on the nature of neighborhoods cited thus far have been
sociological.

Author: Arthur J. Naparstek

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1468411462

Category: Medical

Page: 238

View: 663

It is hard to think of a more timely and topical major contribution than Drs. Naparstek, Biegel, Spiro, and collaborators have provided in this volume. Their penetrating, comprehensive study and field tests give us mapping toward the goal of reifying the concept of "community" as applied to human services. The book will prove invaluable to those at the policy level-legislators, planners, and administrators. It will serve as an essential reference for community workers-professional provid ers, natural helpers, and citizens as a whole. A salient ideal of New Federalism-placing governance as close to the people as practicable-seems a prophetic match with the model of Neighborhood Empowerment. As the authors point out, conventional wisdom has seemed to offer government regulation, control, and pro gram evaluation as a panacea package for improving human services. This work suggests a radically different approach; specifically, a shift to greater instrumental involvement of the richly variegated mosaic of American neighborhoods, combined with a system of excellent, high technology service agencies. Certainly, genuine efforts have been made before toward a true linkage of the community with human services. The Great Society pro grams, with their emphasis on citizen involvement and "maximum fea sible participation" established the foundation for legitimate citizen/ consumer linkage with the program process. Yet, in so many instances, the results fell far short of expectations.

Neighborhood Jobs Race and Skills

CHAPTER 4 Developing Models of Neighborhood Unemployment and Local
Working Rates THE EFFECT OF JOBS ON NEIGHBORHOOD UNEMPLOYMENT
RATES AND ON LOCAL WORKING In this chapter , I develop a model to
estimate ...

Author: Daniel Immergluck

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9780815332077

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 144

View: 217

This book examines the role of job proximity on neighborhood employment rates and the propensity of residents to work close to their own neighborhoods. Employment rates in many older and particularly minority neighborhoods rose significantly from 1970 to 1990. The spatial concentration of unemployment and poverty precipitates a number of place-based policies, including residential dispersal, reverse commuting programs, and urban economic development. The author has developed a model to estimate the effects of jobs located within a neighborhood on the local unemployment rate, incorporating measures of skills match between nearby jobs and neighborhood residents, and controling for the number of competing workers in the surrounding area. Job proximity, however, is not the only cause of urban unemployment problems. Other contributing factors examined include spatial mismatch, employment discrimination, skills mismatch, and the role of social networks. The study finds that although job proximity affects neighborhood unemployment rates, the effects are modest and the skill levels of such jobs are important. African Americans, after controlling for skills match, job proximity, and other factors, are found to suffer from higher unemployment and lower levels of employment at neighborhood jobs than whites and Hispanics.