Persian Fire

Then, towards summer, tidings at last, as bleak and flame-lit as had always been dreaded. The Ionians, starving on their tiny island base, had proved easy prey for enemy agents. When their fleet, advancing to meet a sudden Persian ...

Author: Tom Holland

Publisher: Hachette UK

ISBN: 0748131035

Category: History

Page: 448

View: 255

In 480 BC, Xerxes, the King of Persia, led an invasion of mainland Greece. Its success should have been a formality. For seventy years, victory - rapid, spectacular victory - had seemed the birthright of the Persian Empire. In the space of a single generation, they had swept across the Near East, shattering ancient kingdoms, storming famous cities, putting together an empire which stretched from India to the shores of the Aegean. As a result of those conquests, Xerxes ruled as the most powerful man on the planet. Yet somehow, astonishingly, against the largest expeditionary force ever assembled, the Greeks of the mainland managed to hold out. The Persians were turned back. Greece remained free. Had the Greeks been defeated at Salamis, not only would the West have lost its first struggle for independence and survival, but it is unlikely that there would ever have been such and entity as the West at all. Tom Holland's brilliant new book describes the very first 'clash of Empires' between East and West. Once again he has found extraordinary parallels between the ancient world and our own. There is no competing popular book describing these events.

A Dictionary Persian Arabic and English

An engineer , or maker of fire - works . آتش .Fire - works , a bonfire , feu de joie , آتش بازي .Lightning The Persian fire . The disease called St. Anthony's fire . اثر عسكر .Worthy of approbation , تحسين اثر .آثار A.

Author: John Richardson



Category: English language

Page: 1157

View: 421

Alexander the Great in the Persian Tradition

He would revive the rites of Luhra ̄sp and follow the religion of Gushta ̄sp [Zoroastrianism].114 Alexander's Translations According Zoroastrian to priests T ̇abarı ̄, and Alexander burned destroyed Persian fire temples, killed their ...

Author: Haila Manteghi

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1786733668

Category: History

Page: 272

View: 810

Alexander the Great (356-333 BC) was transformed into a legend by all those he met, leaving an enduring tradition of romances across the world. Aside from its penetration into every language of medieval Europe, the Alexander romance arguably had its greatest impact in the Persian language.Haila Manteghi here offers a complete survey of that deep tradition, ranging from analysis of classical Persian poetry to popular romances and medieval Arabic historiography. She explores how the Greek work first entered the Persian literary tradition and traces the development of its influence, before revealing the remarkable way in which Alexander became as central to the Persian tradition as any other hero or king. And, importantly, by focusing on the often-overlooked early medieval Persian period, she also demonstrates that a positive view of Alexander developed in Arabic and Persian literature before the Islamic era. Drawing on an impressive range of sources in various languages - including Persian, Arabic and Greek - Manteghi provides a profound new contribution to the study of the Alexander romances.Beautifully written and with vibrant literary motifs, this book is important reading for all those with an interest in Alexander, classical and medieval Persian history, the early Islamic world and classical reception studies.

Outram Havelock s Persian Campaign

Thus matters continued until dawn , when the Persian fire having for some half - hour slackened , it was currently believed that they would make off ; but , to the joy and surprise of all , as the morning mist cleared away , their army ...

Author: George Henry Hunt



Category: England

Page: 398

View: 762

Persia and the Persian Question

That it was not a firetemple I consider certain , from its utter lack of resemblance to any Persian fire - altar that exists , either in ruins or figured upon What was it ? coins . What could have been the object of keeping the sacred ...

Author: Marquess George Nathaniel Curzon Curzon of Kedleston

Publisher: London : Longmans, Green


Category: Eastern question (Central Asia)

Page: 752

View: 739

George Nathaniel Curzon (1859-1925) was a British politician, traveler, and writer who served as viceroy of India from 1899 to 1905 and foreign secretary from 1919 to 1924. As a young man he traveled extensively and wrote several books that drew on his travels, including Russia in Central Asia (1889), Persia and the Persian Question (1892), and Problems of the Far East (1894). Persia and the Persian Question, presented here, is two-volume work, based on a six-month stay in Iran that Curzon began in late 1899 as a correspondent for the London newspaper, the Times. The author's intent, as he states in the preface, is to produce "the standard work in the English language" on the subject. After two introductory chapters, chapters 3-12 document Curzon's visits to and observations concerning different parts of the country, including the journey from Ashkabad (present-day Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) into Iran and stays in Kuchan, Meshed, Khorasan, Seistan, Tehran, and elsewhere. Volume one concludes with individual chapters devoted to the shah and the royal family; the government; institutions and reforms; the northwest and northwestern provinces; the army; and railroads. Volume two begins with another seven chapters (19-25) recounting journeys to different parts of the country, including Isfahan, Shiraz, Bushir (present-day Bushehr), and the eastern, southeastern, and southwestern provinces. The remaining chapters (26-30) deal with the navy; the Persian Gulf; revenue, resources and manufactures; commerce and trade; and British and Russian policy in Persia. For Curzon, the essence of "the Persian question" is the rivalry between the Russian and British empires for influence in Persia, which he discusses in detail in the final chapter. This chapter also deals with Persia's "two Asiatic neighbours," Afghanistan and the Ottoman Empire, both of which "held large tracts of territory that were once included within the Persian dominions." Curzon ends on a hopeful note regarding the future development of the country, but he cautions patience and warns that "colossal schemes for the swift regeneration of Persia ... will only end in fiasco." He also warns against a dominant role for foreign concessions: "Persian capital must be interested in the exploitation of Persian resources, for a monopoly of the finance by foreigners excites jealousy, and suggests the idea of usurpation." The book includes illustrations and maps.

Persian Responses

An 'altar (ἐσχάρα) with fire' was laid out, but it was not a Persian fire-altar, not like the one (according to the Cyropaedia) which might be carried in procession behind the king's chariots.164 Incense was thrown onto Eumenes' altar ...

Author: Christopher Tuplin

Publisher: ISD LLC

ISBN: 1910589462

Category: History

Page: 350

View: 431

A generation ago the Achaemenid Empire was a minor sideshow within long-established disciplines. For Greek historians the Persians were the defeated national enemy, a catalyst of change in the aftermath of the fall of Athens or the victim of Alexander. For Egyptologists and Assyriologists they belonged to an era that received scant attention compared with the glory days of the New Kingdom or the Neo-Assyrian Empire. For most archaeologists they were elusive in a material record that lacked a distinctively Achaemenid imprint. Things have changed now. The empire is an object of study in its own right, and a community of Achaemenid specialists has emerged to carry that study forward. Such communities are, however, apt to talk among themselves and the present volume aims to give a professional but non-specialist audience some taste of the variety of subject-matter and discourse that typifies Achaemenid studies. The broad theme of political and cultural interaction - reflecting the empire's diversity and the nature of our sources for its history - is illustrated in fourteen chapters that move from issues in Greek historiography through a series of regional studies (Egypt, Anatolia, Babylonia and Persia) to Zarathushtra, Alexander the Great and the early modern reception of Persepolis.

War and Peace in Qajar Persia

The Turks moved east from their besieging encampments towards the oncoming Persian army. ... effective fire.18 As the Turkish infantry closed they began to lose cohesion due to their poor training and the effectiveness of Persian fire.

Author: Roxane Farmanfarmaian

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134103085

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 995

With new and existing evidence being reconsidered, this edited collection takes a multidisciplinary approach to discussing the Qajar system within the context of the wars that engulfed it and the periods of peace that ensued. It throws new light on the decision-making processes, the restraints on action, and the political exigencies at play during the Qajar years.

Ancient Near Eastern History and Culture

For more detailed reconstructions of the Battle of Marathon see especially Holland, Persian Fire . . . (2005), pp. 171–201, and Peter Green, The GrecoPersian Wars (1996), pp. 30–40. Herodotus estimates that the Persian land force ...

Author: William H. Stiebing Jr.

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315511169

Category: History

Page: 416

View: 895

This introduction to the Ancient Near East includes coverage of Egypt and a balance of political, social, and cultural coverage. Organized by the periods, kingdoms, and empires generally used in Near Eastern political history, the text interlaces social and cultural history with the political narrative. This combination allows students to get a rounded introduction to the subject of Ancient Near Eastern history. An emphasis on problems and areas of uncertainty helps students understand how evidence is used to create interpretations and allows them to realize that several different interpretations of the same evidence are possible.This introduction to the Ancient Near East includes coverage of Egypt and a balance of political, social, and cultural coverage.