Prolactin Physiology and Clinical Significance

This book therefore aims to give a comprehensive account of the mammalian physiology of prolactin and to make suggestions about its possible role in diseases ranging from cancer to mental illness.

Author: D.F. Horrobin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401096953

Category: Medical

Page: 239

View: 584

I first became interested in prolactin a little over two years ago. I was then working in Nairobi and I knew nothing about the hormone apart from its role in lactation. Professor Mohammed Hyder of the Department of Zoology in the University of Nairobi was interested in the endocrine mechanisms which enable Tilapia fish to adapt to water with a very high electrolyte content. He invited me to a seminar given by Professor Howard Bern which was largely concerned with the role prolactin plays in fluid and electrolyte balance in sub-mammalian vertebrates. This inspired me to begin a programme of research into the roles prolactin plays in man and other animals. Very few physiologists or clinicians seem aware of the multifarious effects of prolactin in mammals. This book therefore aims to give a comprehensive account of the mammalian physiology of prolactin and to make suggestions about its possible role in diseases ranging from cancer to mental illness. The two subjects which have been previously widely covered, the roles of prolactin in lactation and in rat mammary cancer, are presented relatively briefly though with a full list of references. Other subjects are dealt with more extenSively and I hope that many research workers and clinicians may find the book helpful.



Clinical Neuroendocrinology

The remaining chapters examine the control mechanisms and pathophysiology of vasopressin, oxytocin, and neurophysins. Clinical neuroendocrinologists and researchers will find this book of great value.

Author: Luciano Martini

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323144292

Category: Nature

Page: 628

View: 215

Clinical Neuroendocrinology covers the clinical significance of the advances made in the understanding of relationships between the actions of neurotransmitters and the hypothalamic control of pituitary secretions. This book contains 24 chapters that examine the interactions of target gland secretions with the effects of hypothalamic and pituitary hormones. This book begins with a discussion of the physiological regulation and clinical applications of thyrotropin-stimulating hormone and thyrotropin-releasing hormone. The subsequent chapters are devoted to neuroendocrine aspects, secretion, regulation, and analysis of gonadotropin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Other chapters explore the regulations, tests, therapeutic implications, and clinical physiology of growth hormones and prolactin. This text also considers the chemical nature, brain pathways, mode of action, and clinical significance of other hormones, including corticotropin-releasing factor, melanocyte-stimulating hormone release-inhibiting factor, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and related pituitary peptides. The remaining chapters examine the control mechanisms and pathophysiology of vasopressin, oxytocin, and neurophysins. Clinical neuroendocrinologists and researchers will find this book of great value.


Prolactin

Prolactin: Physiology and Clinical Significance.” MTP Med. Tech. Publ., Lancaster, England. Horrobin, D. F. (1974). “Prolactin 1974.“ Eden Press, Montreal.

Author: Choh Hao Li

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323159257

Category: Nature

Page: 246

View: 508

Hormonal Proteins and Peptides: Prolactin, Volume VIII focuses on the broad spectrum of biological activities of prolactin among the vertebrates. This book discusses the function of prolactin in stimulating crop milk formation in birds as well as in inducing incubation behavior in the ring dove. Organized into five chapters, this volume starts with an overview of the chemistry of prolactin and its role on normal mammary gland growth and function. This text then explores the prolactin effects in tumor induction and growth. Other chapters review the status of the evolutionary biology and comparative endocrinology of prolactin. This book discusses as well the nature of prolactin cells, the control of prolactin secretion, and the nature of the prolactins from various vertebrate sources. The final chapter considers the significant advances in gonadotropins, including prolactin, follitropin, relaxin, and lutropin. This book is a valuable resource for biologists, endocrinologists, zoologists, embryologists, physicians, and medical health professionals.

Inhibitory Endocrine Control of Prolactin Gene Transcription microform

Prolactin is an anterior pituitary hormone that regulates lactation, reproduction and growth.

Author: Jeffrey C. (Jeffrey Che) Liu

Publisher: Library and Archives Canada = Bibliothèque et Archives Canada

ISBN: 9780494028131

Category:

Page: 372

View: 311

Prolactin is an anterior pituitary hormone that regulates lactation, reproduction and growth. Transcription of the prolactin gene is under physiological inhibition by dopamine and other hormones (e.g. glucocorticoids), however, mechanisms underlying transrepression of the gene are not well understood. As hyperprolactinemia arising from prolactin-secreting tumors is a common pituitary disorder treated with synthetic dopamine agonists, defining the molecular basis for dopaminergic suppression of prolactin has clinical significance. The aim of this study is to identify signaling pathways and epigenetic events important for transrepression of prolactin. The data show that activation of dopamine D2 receptors in prolactin-secreting cells strongly inhibits the function of kinase ERK1/2; this inhibition (mimicked by selective MEK1 inhibitors) leads to pronounced specific suppression of the endogenous prolactin gene and transfected prolactin promoter constructs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed for the first time that dopamine and MEK1 inhibitors rapidly reduce histone acetylation on the endogenous prolactin promoter, consistent with a role in suppression of the gene. In contrast to dopamine, the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone, which inhibits prolactin transcription, stimulated the recruitment of glucocorticoid receptors to the prolactin genomic promoter. During the same time period (within 60 min), dexamethasone did not affect histone acetylation suggesting an alternate mechanism of transrepression. Because the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A significantly induced the expression of endogenous prolactin gene, I examined whether historic deacetylase/corepressor complexes might function as terminal mediators of dopamine signaling, leading to transrepression of the prolactin gene. Consistent with this model, dopamine triggered rapid recruitment of corepressor mSin3A and histone deacetylase HDAC2 to the prolactin promoter region. Finally, transcription factors known to regulate the prolactin gene were investigated for their roles in mediating the response to ERK inhibition. This analysis indicated that binding sites for Pit-1 could confer negative transcriptional regulation in response to ERK inhibition. Moreover, the ETS-domain repressor protein ERF which binds to elements in the prolactin promoter, undergoes nuclear translocation in prolactin-secreting cells following treatment with dopamine or MEK1 inhibitors. In conclusion, this study, by identifying and characterizing new steps in the D2 dopaminergic signaling pathway, provides new insight into mechanisms of prolactin gene repression.

Vitamins and Hormones

In the other review, entitled "Prolactin: Physiology and Clinical Significance," Horrobin (1973) reviewed the relationship of prolactin to various human ...

Author:

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080866314

Category: Science

Page: 245

View: 560

Vitamins and Hormones


Psychotropic Agents

Calaf, J.: Prolactin release. Proc. Int. Symp. Human Prolactin. ... Lancet 2, 675–677 (1974) Horrobin, D.F.: Prolactin Physiology and Clinical Significance.

Author:

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642675387

Category: Medical

Page: 736

View: 995

The volumes on "psychotropic substances" in the Handbook of Experimental Phar macology series clearly show that the classical concept of this discipline has become too narrow in recent years. For instance, what substances are psychotropic is determined not by the criteria of the animal trial, i.e. by experimental pharmacology, but by their action on the psy che, which in the final analysis is only accessible to us in man. Psychotropic substances force experimental pharmacology (and thus also this Handbook) outside its tradition allimits, which have essentially depended on animal studies. The antipsychotics and antidepressants were not discovered in animal ex periments, but by chance (or more precisely, by clinical empiricism). Experienced psy chiatrists trained in the observation of patients recognised the efficacy of drugs, the beneficial effect of which nobody had dreamed of before: DELAY and DENICKER in the case of chlorpormazine, KLINE in the case of the monoamine oxidase inhibitors and KUHN in the case of imipramine. It was only after these discoveries that the pharma cologists developed experimental models of the psychoses in animal experiments. However, even today we still do not know with certainty which of the effects shown in animals is relevant for the clinical effect despite the vast abundance of individual investigations. For many years, this uncertainty led to the testing of antipsychotics (e.g. of the neuroleptic type) in models which actually produced the undesired effects.

Biochemistry of Women Methods

For Clinical Investigation A.S. Curry ... on prolactin physiology of significance to the clinical endocrinologist , in Human Prolactin , Int . Congr . Ser .

Author: A.S. Curry

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351078631

Category: Medical

Page: 364

View: 573

This book is written by experts who, using the latest techniques, describe laboratory investigations into women from conception to the grave. We asked the authors tp pay particular attention to the interpretation of laboratory results so we hope the book will be of interest to clinicians as well as to medical scientists.

Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and Metabolism

The significance of the remaining fraction of glycosylated prolactin is unknown . CLINICAL ASPECTS OF PROLACTIN PHYSIOLOGY The physiologic causes of ...

Author: Kenneth L. Becker

Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

ISBN: 9780781717502

Category: Medical

Page: 2477

View: 480

Established as the foremost text in the field, Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and Metabolism is now in its thoroughly revised, updated Third Edition. This practical, clinically relevant, and comprehensive text covers the entire field of endocrinology and metabolism, including the diffuse endocrine system; morphology and physiology; diagnosis and treatment of endocrine diseases; endocrinology of the female; hormones and cancer; and much more. The Third Edition contains new chapters reflecting the latest advances and features expanded coverage of genetics and the endocrinology of sepsis. More than 1,400 illustrations complement the text. A drug formulary appears at the back of the book.


Journal

In Prolactin : Physiology and Clinical Significance . Lancaster , Medical and Technical Publishing , 1973 , pp 72-79 ( 10 ) MÜHLBOCK O , Boot LM : Induction ...

Author: National Cancer Institute (U.S.)

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Cancer

Page:

View: 545





Hormonal Control of Lactation

Cambridge: University Press 1974 Horrobin, D.F.: Prolactin: physiology and clinical significance. Lancaster: Medical and Technical Publishing 1973 Houghten, ...

Author: A. T. Cowie

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642813895

Category: Medical

Page: 275

View: 350

Research on the hormonal control oflactation - the subject of this monograph - has long been the major interest of this laboratory. Studies were initiated in the mid 1930s by the late Professor S. 1. Folley, FRS, who directed the work with immense enthusiasm and devotion until his untimely death in 1970. This fruitful area of basic and applied research has, in recent years, attracted widespread attention; there have been many exciting events and developments with a dramatic increase in the number of publications. These events are diverse and include the identification, isolation and sequencing of human prolactin; the identification and isolation of placentallactogens in several ruminant species with recognition of their importance in mammary growth and differentiation; the introduction of highly sensitive bioassay, radioimmuno- and radioreceptor-assay techniques for mammotrophic hormones; the growing clinical appreciation of the immunological and nutritional importance of colostrum and milk to the newborn; the intensification of studies on normal mammogenesis to establish a sound basis for studies on mammary cancer; and the exploitation of the mammary gland, with its characteristic differentiation patterns and multiple synthetic abilities, as a valuable tissue for the investigation of basic mechanisms involved in the synthesis under hormonal control of enzymes and secretory proteins; and for the study of hormone - receptor interactions.


Clinical Endocrinology

Added in Proofs: HORROBIN, D. F.: Prolactin: Physiology and clinical significance. Lancaster: MTP Medical and Technical Publishing Co. Ltd. (1973).

Author: A. Labhart

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642961584

Category: Medical

Page: 1092

View: 406

Periodically in the evolution of an important branch of clinical medicine there develops a critical need for a textbook which combines with the clinical aspects of disease syndromes an in-depth review of the sciences basic to the disorders discussed, as well as a carefully selected but com prehensive review of pertinent literature. LABHART'S Clinical Endo crinology revised and translated into English provides for this need in the field of endocrinology in an exemplary manner. Prof. LABHART has selected his individual authors with great care, and they in turn have provided authoritative monographs. An interesting, useful and informative introduction to each chapter is provided by a tabulation of the dates of important or significant contributions to the field. The chapter subdivisions present in great detail a wide variety of subjects such as embryology, anatomy, biochemistry, physiology, indi vidual hormones and their analogues, biosynthesis, metabolism and regulation of hormone release as well as a full discussion of the clinico pathological correlations. The bibliography is unusually extensive and will provide an important source book for all investigators and students in the field.