Knowledge by Agreement

According to this charge, epistemic relativism is incoherent 'because if it is right, the very notion of rightness is ... Siegel insists that the absolutist is entitled to demand from the relativist 'right reasons' for his position.

Author: Martin Kusch

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0199251371

Category: Philosophy

Page: 303

View: 381

Knowledge by Agreement defends the ideas that knowledge is a social status (like money, or marriage), and that knowledge is primarily the possession of groups rather than individuals. Part I develops a new theory of testimony. It breaks with the traditional view according to which testimony isnot, except accidentally, a generative source of knowledge. One important consequence of the new theory is a rejection of attempts to globally justify trust in the words of others. Part II proposes a communitarian theory of empirical knowledge. Martin Kusch argues that empirical belief can acquirethe status of knowledge only by being shared with others, and that all empirical beliefs presuppose social institutions. As a result all knowledge is essentially political. Part III defends some of the controversial premises and consequences of Parts I and II: the community-dependence ofnormativity, epistemological and semantic relativism, anti-realism, and a social conception of objectivity.Martin Kusch's bold approach to epistemology is a challenge to philosophy and will arouse interest in the wider academic world.

Dialogues on Relativism Absolutism and Beyond

Ronnie: Adam: Ronnie: Adam: Barbara: Nina: Well, since relativists recognize that all knowledge is relative, the most that they can show is that the absolutist program might be implausible in the relativist's own lights.

Author: Michael Krausz

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers

ISBN: 1442209305

Category: Philosophy

Page: 140

View: 113

What is truth, goodness, or beauty? Can we really define these concepts without the idea of a frame of reference? In the newest addition to the New Dialogues in Philosophy series, Michael Krausz presents fictional dialogues between four former classmates who hold significantly different views about these questions. As they travel in India, a place with unfamiliar concepts and customs, these four friends debate the rightness of relativism and absolutism. Are these concepts irreconcilable? Might there be a better view that goes beyond both of them? These lively discussions provide students with an accessible introduction to one of the most enduring and far-reaching philosophical problems of our age.

Relativism Refuted

And the absolutist who responds in this way owes us an account of what correspondence with reality consists in. Absolutists have not been able to say anything at all satisfactory on this score. Thus, relativism is not to be faulted for ...

Author: H. Siegel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401577463

Category: Science

Page: 217

View: 383


Morals by Agreement

Common to all forms of purely individualistic relativism is the view that each person has his own good (and bad), ... developing a full theory of value we should have to examine the nuances of both relativist and absolutist positions.

Author: David Gauthier

Publisher: Clarendon Press

ISBN: 0191520144

Category: Philosophy

Page: 376

View: 796

In this book the author argues that moral principles are principles of rational choice. According to the usual view of choice, a rational person selects what is likely to give the greatest expectation of value or utility. But in many situations, if each person chooses in this way, everyone will be worse off than need be. Instead, Professor Gauthier proposes a principle whereby choice is made on an agreed basis of co-operation, rather than according to what would give the individual the greatest expectation of value. He shows that such a principle not only ensures mutual benefit and fairness, thus satisfying the standards of morality, but also that each person may actually expect greater utility by adhering to morality, even though the choice did not have that end primarily in view. In resolving what may appear to be a paradox, the author establishes morals on the firm foundation of reason.

Relativism in the Philosophy of Science

Surely not, if the self-refutation argument is premised on the thought that relativist and absolutist belong to two different epistemic communities. Even if we follow my suggestion and treat relativism and absolutism as two different ...

Author: Martin Kusch

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108981372

Category: Philosophy

Page:

View: 168

'Relativism versus absolutism' is one of the fundamental oppositions that have dominated reflections about science for much of its (modern) history. Often these reflections have been inseparable from wider social-political concerns regarding the position of science in society. Where does this debate stand in the philosophy and sociology of science today? And how does the 'relativism question' relate to current concerns with 'post truth' politics? In Relativism in the Philosophy of Science, Martin Kusch examines some of the most influential relativist proposals of the last fifties years, and the controversies they have triggered. He argues that defensible forms of relativism all deny that any sense can be made of a scientific result being absolutely true or justified, and that they all reject 'anything goes' – that is the thought that all scientific results are epistemically on a par. Kusch concludes by distinguishing between defensible forms of relativism and post-truth thinking.

The Cynic and the Fool

So we can say we are both relativist and absolutist, provided we hold on to the idealism claiming our world could be better. We would still be filled with illusions, but we would be open to rethinking at all times.

Author: Tad DeLay

Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers

ISBN: 1532604254

Category: Philosophy

Page: 180

View: 249

The questioning of religion is the beginning of a flood, one that cannot be contained and will soon drown every theological, political, economic, and cultural orthodoxy that pledged its allegiance to a sinking cause. We are in just such an era of revolt, and those with eyes to see are learning to interrogate motives. When we are told of an idea that cannot possibly be true, the most immediate question is this: does the speaker so very foolishly believe their own words, or is the person a cynic who knows perfectly well how they manipulate the truth? As individual personalities transform into a collective drive, the aftermath is a brutal mix of motives, fictions, and anxieties. The Cynic & the Fool explores theology and politics through the lens of our unconscious motives, our clever repression, and our deceptive denial. In nine chapters interspersed with nine parables, DeLay unites psychoanalysis, philosophy, and theology together for an accessible yet critical theory of culture. There could not be a more crucial moment to settle these questions. Why do we feel such anxiety over the most abstract orthodoxies, what conflicts of interest are we facing, and why we are commanded to see the world a certain way?

Moral Relativity

7 Absolutist Analyses of Moral Statements 7.1 Three kinds of absolutist analysis This chapter will set out some absolutist analyses to compete with the relativist analyses recommended in the last three .

Author: David B. Wong

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520049765

Category: Ethical relativism

Page: 248

View: 891


Reinhold Niebuhr s Paradox

How can we frame whatever misgivings we might have with Putnam and Stout without falling into relativist and absolutist traps? ... If we set aside as unlikely and unhelpful the assumption that all relativists and absolutists are fools, ...

Author: Daniel Malotky

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 0739139622

Category: Religion

Page: 124

View: 443

We are caught between tendencies toward moral paralysis and postures of violence, with their intellectual birthing grounds reflected even among those who consciously seek to avoid them. Reinhold Niebuhr’s paradoxical conception of the self, and his defense of traditional Christian convictions in this light, opens the door to a deeper understanding of the problem as well as its potential solution.

Henry C Carey and American Economic Development

CONCLUSION I ' n analyzing the political economy of any individual , but especially that of an early figure in the history of economic thought , one difficulty is preeminent : the dilemma of choosing between relativist and absolutist ...

Author: Rodney Morrison

Publisher: American Philosophical Society

ISBN: 9781422374474

Category:

Page: 91

View: 255

The development of economic thought (ET) of the mid-19th cent. is essentially a history of classical English political economy. The tenets of this school were communicated to the U.S., where the writings of Smith, Malthus, Mill, & Ricardo were adopted by early Amer. political economists. But there was also a strain of political economy in the U.S. at that time that opposed the adoption of the philosophy of classical political economy. This was the nationalistically-oriented Amer. school of ET, & the foremost member of this movement was Henry C. Carey. Contents: Political Economy in 19th-cent. America; A New Methodology & a Theory of Value; Distribution: Labor, Capital, & Land; Institutional Framework; & A Theory of Trade; A Theory of Econ. Develop.

Ethics and the Philosophy of Culture

The paradox of Wittgenstein's thought is that on one side it is radically relativist, and on the other fundamentally absolutist (just as on the one hand it is completely sceptical, solipsist thought, and on the other completely ...

Author: Ylva Gustafsson

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 1443866334

Category: Philosophy

Page: 290

View: 768

Questions of ethics and the study of culture are tightly interwoven. Are we to see ethics as one thread in the fabric created by human culture or does ethics rather transcend culture? The discussions in this volume take place within this spectrum. Eleven Wittgenstein scholars explore how ethics is embedded in everyday activities and speech. The topics dealt with range from the ways we speak about human practices and nature, religious belief, gender, and moral understanding to questions about Wittgenstein’s views on ethics and what it means to understand and attend to a particular individual. Central points of departure are, firstly, that ethics cannot be reduced to any specific cultural form and, secondly, that how we conceive of language is crucially connected with how we perceive the relation between culture and ethics. The points of view put forth frequently pose radical questions to the mainstream of philosophy. The different uses to which Wittgenstein’s thought is put also raise important questions about how one should understand the role of language, ethics and culture in his philosophy.