Sliding Filament Mechanism in Muscle Contraction

Sliding Filament Mechanism in Muscle Contraction: Fifty Years of Research covers the history of the sliding filament mechanism in muscle contraction from its discovery in 1954 by H.E. Huxley through and including modern day research.

Author: Haruo Sugi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387249907

Category: Medical

Page: 432

View: 391

Sliding Filament Mechanism in Muscle Contraction: Fifty Years of Research covers the history of the sliding filament mechanism in muscle contraction from its discovery in 1954 by H.E. Huxley through and including modern day research. Chapters include topics in dynamic X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, muscle mechanisms, in-vitro motility assay, cardiac versus smooth muscle, motile systems, and much more.

The Sliding Filament Theory of Muscle Contraction

The book reviews the evolution of models for actin-based regulation, culminating in a model motivated by cryo-EM studies where tropomyosin protomers are linked to form a continuous flexible chain.

Author: David Aitchison Smith

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3030035263

Category: Medical

Page: 426

View: 228

Understanding the molecular mechanism of muscle contraction started with the discovery that striated muscle is composed of interdigitating filaments which slide against each other. Sliding filaments and the working-stroke mechanism provide the framework for individual myosin motors to act in parallel, generating tension and loaded shortening with an efficient use of chemical energy. Our knowledge of this exquisitely structured molecular machine has exploded in the last four decades, thanks to a bewildering array of techniques for studying intact muscle, muscle fibres, myofibrils and single myosin molecules. After reviewing the mechanical and biochemical background, this monograph shows how old and new experimental discoveries can be modelled, interpreted and incorporated into a coherent mathematical theory of contractility at the molecular level. The theory is applied to steady-state and transient phenomena in muscle fibres, wing-beat oscillations in insect flight muscle, motility assays and single-molecule experiments with optical trapping. Such a synthesis addresses major issues, most notably whether a single myosin motor is driven by a working stroke or a ratchet mechanism, how the working stroke is coupled to phosphate release, and whether one cycle of attachment is driven by the hydrolysis of one molecule of ATP. Ways in which the theory can be extended are explored in appendices. A separate theory is required for the cooperative regulation of muscle by calcium via tropomyosin and troponin on actin filaments. The book reviews the evolution of models for actin-based regulation, culminating in a model motivated by cryo-EM studies where tropomyosin protomers are linked to form a continuous flexible chain. It also explores muscle behaviour as a function of calcium level, including emergent phenomena such as spontaneous oscillatory contractions and direct myosin regulation by its regulatory light chains. Contraction models can be extended to all levels of calcium-activation by embedding them in a cooperative theory of thin-filament regulation, and a method for achieving this grand synthesis is proposed. Dr. David Aitchison Smith is a theoretical physicist with thirty years of research experience in modelling muscle contractility, in collaboration with experimental groups in different laboratories.

Mechanism of Myofilament Sliding in Muscle Contraction

This volume presents the entire proceedings of the symposium organized by one of us (H. S. ) on November 11 to 15, 1991 at Hakone, Japan, under the title of "Mechanism of Myofllament Sliding in Muscle Contraction.

Author: Haruo Sugi

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781461362456

Category: Science

Page: 866

View: 731

This volume presents the entire proceedings of the symposium organized by one of us (H. S. ) on November 11 to 15, 1991 at Hakone, Japan, under the title of "Mechanism of Myofllament Sliding in Muscle Contraction. " Among various kinds of energy transduction mechanisms in biological systems, the mechanism of muscle contraction has been studied most intensively and extensively over many years. Since the monumental discovery by the two Huxleys and coworkers that muscle contraction results from relative sliding between the thick and thin myofilaments, attention of muscle investigators has been focused on the question, what makes the fllaments slide past one another. In response to the above question, A. F. Huxley and Simmons put forward a contraction model in 1971, in which globular heads of myosin (cross-bridges) extending from the thick fllament first attach to actin on the thin fllament, and then change their angle of attachment to actin (power stroke) leading to force generation or myofilament sliding until they detach from the thin fllament. The rocking cross-bridge contraction model seemed to be entirely consistent with the kinetic scheme of actomyosin ATPase published by Lymn and Taylor at the same time, thus giving a strong impression to the people concerned that the muscle contraction mechanism would soon be sorted out. In his review lecture in 1974, however, A. F.

Molecular Mechanism of Muscle Contraction

In the field of the molecular mechanism of contraction in striated muscle, the stepwise progress was achieved by three great investigators in 1940's and 1950's.

Author: Haruo Sugi

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 812

View: 383

It is now widely recognized that fundamental progress in science is made not in a continuous manner but in a stepwise manner. In the field of the molecular mechanism of contraction in striated muscle, the stepwise progress was achieved by three great investigators in 1940's and 1950's. In the early 1940's, Albert Szent-Gyorgyi and his associates showed biochemically that muscle contraction is essentially an interaction between actin and myosin coupled with ATP hydrolysis. Then, in the 1950's, Hugh E. Huxley together with Jean Hanson demonstrated that striated muscle is composed of a hexagonal lattice of two kinds of interdigtating myofilaments consisting of action and myosin respectively, and made a monumental discovery that muscle contraction results from the relative sliding between the actin and myosin filaments. Andrew F. Huxley, who also participated in the discovery of the sliding filament mechanism of muscle contraction was attributed to the attachment-detachment cycle between the cross-bridges extending from the myosin filament and the complementary sites on the actin filament. After the above stepwise progress, however, muscle research appears to have entered into a period of so-called 'normal science' where detailed knowledge has been accumulating around the well established 'central dogmas' but without fundamental progress. More specifically, most experiments on muscle contraction mechanisms have been designed, carried out and interpreted on the basis of the Huxley's 1957 and the Huxley-Simmons' 1971 contraction models, as well as the kinetic scheme of actomyosin ATPase; but the molecular mechanism of contraction still remains to be a matter for debate and speculation. For further fundamental progress in this field of research, we feel it necessary to reconsider the validity of these dogmas and to interpret the results more freely. In 1978, one of us (H.S.) organized a symposium in Tokyo based on the above idea, and we published the proceedings under the title of "Cross-bridge Mechanism in Muscle Contraction" (ed. H. Sugi and G.H. Pollack, University of Tokyo Press/University Park Press, 1979). The unusual interest of muscle physiologists in this symposium encouraged us to organize a second symposium on muscle contraction in Seattle in 1982, and proceedings was again published under the title of "Contractile Mechanisms in Muscle" (ed. G.H. Pollack and H. Sugi, Plenum Publishing Corporation, 1984). We were again very much encouraged by the intense interest of the people at the symposium as well as by readers of the proceedings, and became convinced that the symposia of this kind would greatly accelerate the progress in this field. The present symposium was organized by one of us (H.S.) as the third "Cross-bride" symposium. Though most papers are concerned, as in the previous two symposia, with experiments on intact and demembranated muscle fibers and isolated myofibrils, where the three-Dimensional muofilament-lattice structures have been preserved, the results are frequently discussed in connection with the kinetics of actomyosin ATPase, reflecting the recent development of experimental methods connecting physiology and biochemistry. It has also become possible to obtain direct information about the orientation and configuration of the cross-bridges as various stages during muscle contraction.

Molecular and Cellular Aspects of Muscle Contraction

This volume presents the proceedings of a muscle symposium, which was supported by the grant from the Fujihara Foundation of Science to be held as the Fourth Fujihara Seminar on October 28 -November 1, 2002, at Hakone, Japan.

Author: Haruo Sugi

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781461347644

Category: Science

Page: 701

View: 877

This volume presents the proceedings of a muscle symposium, which was supported by the grant from the Fujihara Foundation of Science to be held as the Fourth Fujihara Seminar on October 28 -November 1, 2002, at Hakone, Japan. The Fujihara Seminar covers all fields of natural science, while only one proposal is granted every year. It is therefore a great honor for me to be able to organize this meeting. Before this symposium, I have organized muscle symposia five times, and published the proceedings: " Cross-bridge Mechanism in Muscle Contraction (University of Tokyo Press, 1978), "Contractile Mechanisms in Muscle" (plenum, 1984); "Molecular Mechanisms of Muscle Contraction" (plenum, 1988); "Mechanism of MyofIlament Sliding in Muscle contraction" (plenum, 1993); "Mechanisms of Work Production and Work Absorption in Muscle" (plenum, 1998). As with these proceedings, this volume contains records of discussions made not only after each presentation but also during the periods of General Discussion, in order that general readers may properly evaluate each presentation and the up-to-date situation of this research field. It was my great pleasure to have Dr. Hugh Huxley, a principal discoverer of the sliding fIlament mechanism in muscle contraction, in this meeting. On my request, Dr. Huxley kindly gave a special lecture on his monumental discovery of myofIlament-lattice structure by X-ray diffraction of living skeletal muscle. I hope general readers to learn how a breakthrough in a specific research field can be achieved.

Mysteries in Muscle Contraction

This book explores the author’s wide-ranging work on muscle research, which spans more than 50 years.

Author: Haruo Sugi

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351590480

Category: Medical

Page: 283

View: 416

This book explores the author’s wide-ranging work on muscle research, which spans more than 50 years. It delves into the dogmas of muscle contraction: how the models were constructed and what was overlooked during the process, including their resulting shortcomings. The text stimulates general readers’ and researchers’ interest, highlights the author’s pioneering work on the electron microscopic recording of myosin head power and recovery strokes, and presents a frank discussion on how the original work sometimes tends to be overlooked by competing scientists, who hinder the progress of science.

Mechanism of Muscular Contraction

Even though there could be no doubt now about the existence of a double hexagonal array of overlapping filaments in muscle, these results did not prove the existence of a sliding filament mechanism of contraction.

Author: Jack A. Rall

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1493920073

Category: Medical

Page: 471

View: 375

This book describes the evolution of ideas relating to the mechanism of muscular contraction since the discovery of sliding filaments in 1954. An amazing variety of experimental techniques have been employed to investigate the mechanism of muscular contraction and relaxation. Some background of these various techniques is presented in order to gain a fuller appreciation of their strengths and weaknesses. Controversies in the muscle field are discussed along with some missed opportunities and false trails. The pathway to ATP and the high energy phosphate bond will be discussed, as well as the discovery of myosin, contraction coupling and the emergence of cell and molecular biology in the muscle field. Numerous figures from original papers are also included for readers to see the data that led to important conclusions. This book is published on behalf of the American Physiological Society by Springer. Access to APS books published with Springer is free to APS members.

Contractile Mechanisms in Muscle

Prior to the emergence of the sliding filament model, contraction theories had been in abundance.

Author: Gerald Pollack

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781468447057

Category: Medical

Page: 921

View: 419

Prior to the emergence of the sliding filament model, contraction theories had been in abundance. In the absence of the kinds of structural and biochemical information available today, it has been a simple matter to speculate about the possible ways in which tension generation and shortening might occur. The advent of the sliding filament model had an immediate impact on these theories; within several years they fell by the wayside, and attention was redirected towards mechanisms by which the filaments might be driven to slide by one another. In terms of identifying the driving mechanism, the pivotal observa tion was the electron micrographic indentification of cross-bridges extending from the thick filaments. It was quite naturally assumed that such bridges, which had the ability to split ATP, were the molecular motors, i.e., that they were the sites of mechanochemical transduction. Out of this presumption grew the cross-bridge model. in which filament sliding is presumed to be driven by the cyclic interaction of cross-bridges with complementary actin sites located along the thin filaments.


Oxford International AQA Examinations International A Level Biology

Learning objectives ➔ Describe the evidence that supports the sliding filament mechanism of muscle contraction. ➔ Describe how the sliding filament mechanism causes a muscle to contract and relax. ➔ Describe where the energy for ...

Author: Susan Toole

Publisher: Oxford University Press - Children

ISBN: 0198411766

Category: Science

Page:

View: 163

The only textbook that completely covers the Oxford AQA International AS & A Level Biology specification (9610), for first teaching in September 2016. Written by experienced authors, the engaging, enquiry-based approach ensures a thorough understanding of complex concepts and provides exam-focused practice to build assessment confidence. Help students to develop the scientific, mathematical and practical skills and knowledge needed for assessment success and the step up to university. It ensures that students understand the bigger picture, supporting their progression to further study, with synoptic links and a focus on how scientists and engineers apply their knowledge in real life.