Spillover Animal Infections and the Next Human Pandemic

He illuminates the dynamics of Ebola, SARS, bird flu, Lyme disease, and other emerging threats and tells the story of AIDS and its origins as it has never before been told.

Author: David Quammen

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 0393239225

Category: Science

Page: 592

View: 451

"[Mr. Quammen] is not just among our best science writers but among our best writers, period." —Dwight Garner, New York Times The next big human pandemic—the next disease cataclysm, perhaps on the scale of AIDS or the 1918 influenza—is likely to be caused by a new virus coming to humans from wildlife. Experts call such an event “spillover” and they warn us to brace ourselves. David Quammen has tracked this subject from the jungles of Central Africa, the rooftops of Bangladesh, and the caves of southern China to the laboratories where researchers work in space suits to study lethal viruses. He illuminates the dynamics of Ebola, SARS, bird flu, Lyme disease, and other emerging threats and tells the story of AIDS and its origins as it has never before been told. Spillover reads like a mystery tale, full of mayhem and clues and questions. When the Next Big One arrives, what will it look like? From which innocent host animal will it emerge? Will we be ready?


Author: David Quammen

Publisher: Random House

ISBN: 1409019829

Category: Social Science

Page: 592

View: 580

Read this gripping, timely book about the transmission of deadly viruses from animal to human populations, and how we can fight the current Covid-19 pandemic. As globalization spreads and as we destroy the ancient ecosystems, we encounter strange and dangerous infections that originate in animals but that can be transmitted to humans. Diseases that were contained are being set free and the results are potentially catastrophic. In a journey that takes him from southern China to the Congo, from Bangladesh to Australia, David Quammen tracks these infections to their source, and asks what we can do to prevent some new pandemic spreading across the face of the earth. As we continue to feel the global impact of Covid-19, discover the book that predicted this viral disaster and the science that could stop the next one in its tracks. ‘A tremendous book...this gives you all you need to know and all you should know’ Sunday Times ‘Chilling... [A] brilliant, devastating book’ Daily Mail 'David Quammen is a master' Bill Bryson ‘A frightening and fascinating masterpiece of science reporting that reads like a detective story’ Walter Isaacson

New Aspects of Spillover Effect in Catalysis

S. Nishiyama, M. Akemoto, I. Yamamoto, H. Yanagi, S. Tsuruya, and M. Masai
Department of Chemical Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe
657, Japan. Abstract Effect of Sn addition to Rh catalysts on spillover of oxygen
was ...

Author: K. Fujimoto

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080887708

Category: Science

Page: 434

View: 659

The spillover effect is one of the most promising factors in the enhancement of catalytic reaction rates. The spillover phenemenon was found in the 1960s by several research groups independently. It was defined at the previous International Symposium on Spillover as follows Spillover involves the transport of active species which are adsorbed or formed on a first phase onto another phase that does not adsorb or form the species under the same condition. However, this effect appears typically in the dynamic state, i.e., during reactions, which advance with a considerable reaction rate. This makes it difficult to elucidate the spillover effect through static methods. Therefore, more fundamental investigations are necessary. The development of alternative energy sources and protection of the environment demands highly selective and very rapid catalytic reactions at deviating conditions. To achieve these goals new concepts, such as the spillover effect, are needed. This proceedings book, which comprises 80 papers, contains methods for preparing catalysts in order to realize spillover effects and suggests the most probable mechanisms to explain these non-linear phenomena. It also contains studies on applications of the spillover effect to improve industrial catalytic processes. The book will be invaluable in the development of industrial catalysts and for solving energy and environmental protection problems.

Spillover and Mobility of Species on Solid Surfaces

Hydrogen spillover was thought responsible of two main results: regeneration of
Bronsted acid sites and addition of the hydride species on the carbenium ion
leading to the formation of isobutane through a mono-molecular mechanism.

Author: A. Guerrero-Ruiz

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080539744

Category: Science

Page: 500

View: 200

"Spillover and Mobility of Species and Solid Surfaces" collects the papers which were presented at the Fifth International Conference Spillover, either as oral or poster contributions, as well as the summaries of the invited lectures. This congress and its publication in the Studies on Surface Science and Catalysis series follow the tradition of previous conferences on spillover, initiated in Lyon, 1983, and continued in Leipzig, 1989, Kyoto 1993 and Dalian, 1997. For the fifth conference, held in S.L. el Escorial (Madrid), the organising committee has attempted to compile representative contributions which illustrate the advances in understanding the spillover phenomenon since 1997. Spillover is a process taking place during the interface of gas reactant molecules (mainly hydrogen and oxygen) on solid surfaces. However, different contributions to the more general area of the chemistry at surfaces, related with the mobility and migration of species, diffusion through membranes, fuel cell catalysts, etc., have also been included. In fact the title of the present volume summarizes this attempt to extend the conference topics towards dynamics at surfaces. Among the 70 contributions received, the 56 accepted papers were selected on the basis of the reports of at least two international reviewers, according to standards comparable to those applied for other specialised journals. These papers are from 21 different countries.

Financial Vulnerability Spillover Effects and Contagion

That is , some countries that may not have been financially vulnerable at the time
can suffer spillover effects from foreign financial crises , and they may even
become financially vulnerable and suffer a financial crisis after they are affected
by ...

Author: Guillermo Perry

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821342282

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 69

View: 286

There is already a large and growing literature about the financial crises affecting several former star economic performers in Asia. Some analysis have focused on the mismanagement of the structure of foreign debt and economic policies, while others have focused on weaknesses ingrained in the domestic financial and banking sectors of these economies. This paper attempts to reconcile these alternative explanations in a simple framework, where the causes and symptoms of "financial vulnerability" are distinguished.

Colombia s Conflicts The Spillover Effects of a Wider War

Intoday'sglobalvillagethereisnosuchthingasapurely national crisis. Every conflict
has spillover effects, ranging from tradedisruptions to refugee flowstoviolent


Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 1428910891



View: 471

Spillover of Adsorbed Species

G.M. Pajonk, S.J. Teichner and J.E. Germain (Editors), Spillover 0/"Adsorbed
Species 31 © 1983 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam — Printed in
spillover ...

Author: G. M. Pajonk

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444422242

Category: Adsorption

Page: 319

View: 944

Good,No Highlights,No Markup,all pages are intact, Slight Shelfwear,may have the corners slightly dented, may have slight color changes/slightly damaged spine.

Information Spillover Effect and Autoregressive Conditional Duration Models

So, combining parametric and nonparametric approach is a direction of studying
next. An empirical study on spillover of extreme downside market risk
betweentheChinesestock marketand other internationalcapital markets is
giveninChapter 4.

Author: Xiangli Liu

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317667654

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 208

View: 966

This book studies the information spillover among financial markets and explores the intraday effect and ACD models with high frequency data. This book also contributes theoretically by providing a new statistical methodology with comparative advantages for analyzing comovements between two time series. It explores this new method by testing the information spillover between the Chinese stock market and the international market, futures market and spot market. Using the high frequency data, this book investigates the intraday effect and examines which type of ACD model is particularly suited in capturing financial duration dynamics. The book will be of invaluable use to scholars and graduate students interested in comovements among different financial markets and financial market microstructure and to investors and regulation departments looking to improve their risk management.

Spillover from the Conflict in Syria

CHAPTER TWO Review of the Literature Concerning Conflict Spillover A review
of academic literature on armed conflict and its spread into neighboring countries
shows that the following factors are most likely to contribute to the spillover of ...

Author: William Young

Publisher: Rand Corporation

ISBN: 0833087266

Category: History

Page: 84

View: 869

Aid flowing into Syria is intended to determine the outcome of the conflict between rebel factions and Damascus. Instead, it could perpetuate the civil war and ignite larger regional hostilities that could reshape the political geography of the Middle East. This report examines the main factors likely to contribute to or impede the spread of violence from civil war and insurgency in Syria, and then examines how they apply to neighboring states.

How to Capture Macro Financial Spillover Effects in Stress Tests

(scenario 2a) would thereby result in an increase of Austrian spreads by 24 basis
points for less significant spillover stress(scenario 2a/1) and 50basis points (2a/2)
for more substantialspillover stress.Measured relative totheApril2012 WEO ...

Author: Heiko Hesse

Publisher: International Monetary Fund

ISBN: 1498361722

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 34

View: 209

One of the challenges of financial stability analysis and bank stress testing is how to establish scenarios with meaningful macro-financial linkages, i.e., taking into account spillover effects and other forms of contagion. We come up with an approach to simulate the potential impact of spillover effects based on the “traditional” design of macro-economic stress tests. Specifically, we examine spillover effects observed during the financial crisis and simulate their impact on banks’ liquidity and capital positions. The outcome suggests that spillover effects have a highly non-linear impact on bank soundness, both in terms of liquidity and solvency.

Italy Technical Note on Interconnectedness and Spillover Analysis

Spillovers intoandout ofItaly could stemfromother channels. Thelargest banks
have cross-border exposures and face foreign credit and market risks.
Disruptions to intra-banking-group liquidity transferscanalsoraise theoverall cost
of funding.

Author: International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: International Monetary Fund

ISBN: 1475566476

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 30

View: 834

This Technical Note discusses findings of interconnectedness and spillover analysis on Italy. The market-based measures of tail risks and interconnectedness among key banks and insurance companies in Italy have declined from their peak but remain at elevated levels. Although the stress on Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena has been manifesting on its own, the market perception about the condition of the banks appears to be increasingly contaminating the market views on other Italian financial institutions. It is also observed that exogenous factors, such as the Italian sovereign, are the key source of systemic risk for the market pricing of Italian financial institutions.

Safe Haven Korea Spillover Effects from UMPs

The discussion about spillovers from unconventional monetary policies (UMPs)
has, until recently, focused on the impactsofquantitative easing (QE) of the United
States through portfolio capitalflows. Historically, capitalflows tended ...

Author: Mr. Jack Ree

Publisher: International Monetary Fund

ISBN: 1475538987

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 35

View: 789

We examine how Korea’s capital flows and trade have been affected by the quantitative easing (QE) of the United States and the quantitative and qualitative easing (QQME) of Japan. Korea is an intriguing case due to its borderline position between advanced and emerging market country groups, and the common perception that Korea competes fiercely with Japan in the world market for trade. We find that QE had little direct impact on capital flows to Korea, and tapering is unlikely to cause capital outflows from it owing to partial safe-haven behavior of capital flows to Korea. We also find that the exchange rate spillover from QQME to Korea has been limited both on trade and capital flow fronts.

The Spillover Effects of a Downturn in China s Real Estate Investment

As a result, a decline in real estate investment has the potential to disrupt the
production chain throughout China's economy, and with that a potential for
external spillover to G20 trading partners. — Backward Linkages: Selected
Contributors ...

Author: Mr. Ashvin Ahuja

Publisher: International Monetary Fund

ISBN: 1475560664

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 24

View: 697

Real estate investment accounts for a quarter of total fixed asset investment (FAI) in China. The real estate sector’s extensive industrial and financial linkages make it a special type of economic activity, especially where the credit creation process relies primarily on collateral, like in China. As a result, the impact on economic activity of a collapse in real estate investment in China—though a low-probability event—would be sizable, with large spillovers to a number of China’s trading partners. Using a two-region factor-augmented vector autoregression model that allows for interaction between China and the rest of the G20 economies, we find that a 1-percent decline in China’s real estate investment would shave about 0.1 percent off China’s real GDP within the first year, with negative spillover impacts to China’s G20 trading partners that would cause global output to decline by roughly 0.05 percent from baseline. Japan, Korea, and Germany would be among the hardest hit. In that event, commodity prices, especially metal prices, could fall by as much as 0.8–2.2 percent below baseline one year after the shock.

Spillover effects of targeted subsidies

We also include the quantity of subsidized fertilizer acquired in 2009 QFerts,to
test whether access to this complementary good has spillover effects on farmers'
probability of using improved seed. We control for the presence of irrigation4 in
the ...

Author: Liverpool-Tasie, Lenis

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst


Category: Social Science

Page: 32

View: 554

While there is growing evidence of the impact of targeted subsidies on private input demand, as far as we are aware no empirical studies have examined the spillover effects of targeted subsidies for just one input on the use of other complementary inputs with which there is low substitutability. Consequently, this study begins to fill this gap by exploring the effect of increasing access to subsidized fertilizer on farmers’ use of improved seed in Nigeria.

Spillover Effects of Exchange Rates

Author: Mr. Arvind Subramanian

Publisher: International Monetary Fund

ISBN: 1475516878

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 37

View: 157

This paper estimates the impact of China''s exchange rate changes on exports of competitor countries in third markets, which we call the "spillover effect". We use recent theory to develop an identification strategy in which competition between China and its developing country competitors in specific products and destinations plays a key role. We exploit the variation - afforded by disaggregated trade data - across exporters, importers, product, and time to estimate this spillover effect. We find robust evidence of a statistically and quantitatively significant spillover effect. Our estimates suggest that a 10 percent appreciation of China''s real exchange rate boosts on average a developing country''s exports of a typical 4-digit HS product category to third markets by about 1.5-2 percent. The magnitude of the spillover effect varies systematically with product characteristics as implied by theory.

Spillover Effects and the East African Community Explaining the Slowdown and the Recovery

©2009 International Monetary Fund Production: IMF Multimedia Services
Division Typesetting: Alicia Etchebarne-Bourdin Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Drummond, Paulo Flavio Nacif, 1966– Spillover effects and the EAC: explaining
the ...

Author: Gustavo Ramirez

Publisher: International Monetary Fund

ISBN: 145524516X


Page: 32

View: 912

The East African Community (EAC) countries—Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and Rwanda—have been affected by the global financial crisis and global recession. The fall in global demand and inflows and tighter liquidity conditions abroad affected the countries in this region as elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa. But how hard have countries in the EAC been hit? Have the spillovers from the global crisis affected countries in the region as much as other countries in the sub-Saharan region? Have the transmission channels or magnitudes of the spillovers been different across EAC countries? How can these countries return quickly to a path of sustained high growth? What is the role for policy? Would acceleration of regional integration and policy coordination help achieve this goal? Would it make the region less susceptible to shocks? This paper focus on the EAC countries and attempts to address these questions.

Pathogen Spillover During Land Conversion

Abstract: Pathogen spillover from wildlife to domestic animals and humans, and the reverse, has caused significant epidemics and pandemics worldwide.






View: 418

Abstract: Pathogen spillover from wildlife to domestic animals and humans, and the reverse, has caused significant epidemics and pandemics worldwide. Although pathogen emergence has been linked to anthropogenic land conversion, a general framework to disentangle underlying processes is lacking. We develop a multi‐host model for pathogen transmission between species inhabiting intact and converted habitat. Interspecies contacts and host populations vary with the proportion of land converted; enabling us to quantify infection risk across a changing landscape. In a range of scenarios, the highest spillover risk occurs at intermediate levels of habitat loss, whereas the largest, but rarest, epidemics occur at extremes of land conversion. This framework provides insights into the mechanisms driving disease emergence and spillover during land conversion. The finding that the risk of spillover is highest at intermediate levels of habitat loss provides important guidance for conservation and public health policy.