The Color of Law

Longlisted for the National Book Award This "powerful and disturbing history" exposes how American governments deliberately imposed racial segregation on metropolitan areas nationwide (New York Times Book Review).

Author: Richard Rothstein

Publisher:

ISBN: 9781631492853

Category: Social Science

Page: 336

View: 597

Lauded by Ta-Nehisi Coates for his "brilliant" and "fine understanding of the machinery of government policy" (The Atlantic), Richard Rothstein has painstakingly documented how American cities, from San Francisco to Boston, became so racially divided. Rothstein describes how federal, state, and local governments systematically imposed residential segregation: with undisguised racial zoning, public housing that purposefully segregated previously mixed communities, subsidies for builders to create whites-only suburbs, tax exemptions for institutions that enforced segregation, and support for violent resistance to African Americans in white neighborhoods. He demonstrates that such policies still influence tragedies in places like Ferguson and Baltimore. Scholars have separately described many of these policies, but until now, no author has brought them together to explode the myth of de facto segregation arising from private prejudice or the unintended consequences of economic forces. Like The New Jim Crow, Rothstein's groundbreaking history forces us to face the obligation to remedy our unconstitutional past.

Summary of The Color of Law

- About the Hero of the Book: Richard Rothstein - Tantalizing Trivia Questions for Better Retention Scroll Up and Buy Now! 100% Guaranteed You'll Find Thousands of Dollars Worth of Ideas in This Book or Your Money Back Faster You Order - ...

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Learn the Invaluable Lessons from The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America by Richard Rothstein and Apply it into Your Life Without Missing Out!What's it worth to you to have just ONE good idea applied to your life?In many cases, it may mean expanded paychecks, better vitality, and magical relationships. Here's an Introduction of What You're About to Discover in this Premium Summary of The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America by Richard Rothstein: Richard Rothstein, a distinguished historian and author, wrote The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America. Through his book, Rothstein revealed the very disturbing and dark history of how past governments and its leaders actively participated in the unceasing racial segregation of African Americans in the urban areas of the United States. The Color of Law, published under the Liveright on May 2, 2017, is a New York Times Best Seller and Notable Book of the Year. It was also picked as one of the Editors' Choice Selections of the said daily news publication. Plus, - Executive "Snapshot" Summary of The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America- Background Story and History of The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America for a Much Richer Reading Experience - Key Lessons Extracted from The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America and Exercises to Apply it into your Life - Immediately!- About the Hero of the Book: Richard Rothstein - Tantalizing Trivia Questions for Better Retention Scroll Up and Buy Now! 100% Guaranteed You'll Find Thousands of Dollars Worth of Ideas in This Book or Your Money BackFaster You Order - Faster You'll Have it in Your Hands!*Please note: This is a summary and workbook meant to supplement and not replace the original book.

Summary of The Color of Law

The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America by Richard Rothstein - Book Summary - Abbey Beathan (Disclaimer: This is NOT the original book.) An exploration of the housing policy in United States and the ...

Author: Abbey Beathan

Publisher: Abbey Beathan Publishing

ISBN: 9781690407195

Category:

Page: 82

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The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America by Richard Rothstein - Book Summary - Abbey Beathan (Disclaimer: This is NOT the original book.) An exploration of the housing policy in United States and the hidden truth about how cities are divided. It was commonly believed that cities were divided by de facto segregation, through individual prejudices like income differences and actions of private institutions. However, Richard Rothstein discovered the brutal truth, the fact that cities are divided by de jure segregation, which means that local, state and federal governments passed laws that promoted the discriminatory patterns that are present even to this date. (Note: This summary is wholly written and published by Abbey Beathan. It is not affiliated with the original author in any way) "The challenge is more difficult because low-income African Americans today confront not only segregation but also the income stagnation and blocked mobility faced by all Americans in families with low or moderate incomes." - Richard Rothstein A chronicle of an untold story that began in the 1920s and still affecting African American citizens today. Explicit racial zoning forced millions of black individuals from the North to the South. This book is a great tool to get informed about the harsh realities of America. It's not all sun and rainbows, there is a dark side to everything and America has a big one. A brilliant chronicle that debunks previous myth about housing policy and reveals the hidden truth. P.S. The Color of Law is a brilliant book that tell us a dark secret that had been hidden until now. P.P.S. It was Albert Einstein who famously said that once you stop learning, you start dying. It was Bill Gates who said that he would want the ability to read faster if he could only have one superpower in this world. Abbey Beathan's mission is to bring across amazing golden nuggets in amazing books through our summaries. Our vision is to make reading non-fiction fun, dynamic and captivating. Ready To Be A Part Of Our Vision & Mission? Scroll Up Now and Click on the "Buy now with 1-Click" Button to Get Your Copy. Why Abbey Beathan's Summaries? How Can Abbey Beathan Serve You? Amazing Refresher if you've read the original book before Priceless Checklist in case you missed out any crucial lessons/details Perfect Choice if you're interested in the original book but never read it before Disclaimer Once Again: This book is meant for a great companionship of the original book or to simply get the gist of the original book. "One of the greatest and most powerful gift in life is the gift of knowledge. The way of success is the way of continuous pursuit of knowledge" - Abbey Beathan

Summary the Color of Law

The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America by Richard Rothstein | Book Summary | Abbey Beathan (Disclaimer: This is NOT the original book.

Author: Abbey Beathan

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ISBN: 9781723132124

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Page: 80

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The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America by Richard Rothstein | Book Summary | Abbey Beathan (Disclaimer: This is NOT the original book. If you're looking for the original book, search this link: http://amzn.to/2rTTWjJ) An exploration of the housing policy in United States and the hidden truth about how cities are divided. It was commonly believed that cities were divided by de facto segregation, through individual prejudices like income differences and actions of private institutions. However, Richard Rothstein discovered the brutal truth, the fact that cities are divided by de jure segregation, which means that local, state and federal governments passed laws that promoted the discriminatory patterns that are present even to this date. (Note: This summary is wholly written and published by Abbey Beathan. It is not affiliated with the original author in any way) "The challenge is more difficult because low-income African Americans today confront not only segregation but also the income stagnation and blocked mobility faced by all Americans in families with low or moderate incomes." - Richard Rothstein A chronicle of an untold story that began in the 1920s and still affecting African American citizens today. Explicit racial zoning forced millions of black individuals from the North to the South. This book is a great tool to get informed about the harsh realities of America. It's not all sun and rainbows, there is a dark side to everything and America has a big one. A brilliant chronicle that debunks previous myth about housing policy and reveals the hidden truth. P.S. The Color of Law is a brilliant book that tell us a dark secret that had been hidden until now. P.P.S. It was Albert Einstein who famously said that once you stop learning, you start dying. It was Bill Gates who said that he would want the ability to read faster if he could only have one superpower in this world. Abbey Beathan's mission is to bring across amazing golden nuggets in amazing books through our summaries. Our vision is to make reading non-fiction fun, dynamic and captivating. Ready To Be A Part Of Our Vision & Mission? Scroll Up Now and Click on the "Buy now with 1-Click" Button to Get Your Copy. Why Abbey Beathan's Summaries? How Can Abbey Beathan Serve You? Amazing Refresher if you've read the original book before Priceless Checklist in case you missed out any crucial lessons/details Perfect Choice if you're interested in the original book but never read it before FREE 2 Page Printable Summary BONUS for you to paste in on your office, home etc Disclaimer Once Again: This book is meant for a great companionship of the original book or to simply get the gist of the original book. If you're looking for the original book, search for this link: http://amzn.to/2rTTWjJ "One of the greatest and most powerful gift in life is the gift of knowledge. The way of success is the way of continuous pursuit of knowledge" - Abbey Beathan

The Color of Law A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America by Richard Rothstein Conversation Starters

Create Hours of Conversation: • Foster a deeper understanding of the book • Promote an atmosphere of discussion for groups • Assist in the study of the book, either individually or corporately • Explore unseen realms of the book as ...

Author: dailyBooks

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ISBN: 9788834149126

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The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America by Richard Rothstein Conversation Starters Segregation in America has contributed to so much social strife. Richard Rothstein makes extraordinary revelations about how this came to be and how government policies promoted the segregation that continues to this day. With meticulous research and strong analyses, The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How our Government Segregated America chronicles the untold story. Its well-researched evidence sheds light on a policy of de jure segregation in every presidential administration. It is a history of racism apparent but unrecognized, compelling Americans to act on the injustice done by government policies. The New York Times calls it powerful and disturbing. Many critics agree that it is a rare book that will be discussed and debated long into the future. A Brief Look Inside: EVERY GOOD BOOK CONTAINS A WORLD FAR DEEPER than the surface of its pages. The characters and their world come alive, and the characters and its world still live on. Conversation Starters is peppered with questions designed to bring us beneath the surface of the page and invite us into the world that lives on. These questions can be used to.. Create Hours of Conversation: • Foster a deeper understanding of the book • Promote an atmosphere of discussion for groups • Assist in the study of the book, either individually or corporately • Explore unseen realms of the book as never seen before

The Color of Law

Lawyer Scott Fenney is not thrilled when he is appointed to defend Shawanda Jones, a prostitute accused of killing the son of Texas senator and presidential candidate, Mack McCall.

Author: Mark Gimenez

Publisher: Anchor

ISBN: 0307275000

Category: Fiction

Page: 410

View: 164

Lawyer Scott Fenney is not thrilled when he is appointed to defend Shawanda Jones, a prostitute accused of killing the son of Texas senator and presidential candidate, Mack McCall.

The Color of Law

The Color of Law : Ernie Goodman , Detroit , and the Struggle for Labor and Civil Rights traces Goodman's journey through these tumultuous events and highlights the many moments when changing perceptions of social justice clashed with ...

Author: Steve Babson

Publisher: Wayne State University Press

ISBN: 9780814334966

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 558

View: 825

Biography of Ernie Goodman, a Detroit lawyer and political activist who played a key role in social justice cases.

The Color of Law

Praise for Mark Gimenez's THE COLOR OF LAW Nominated for the International Thriller Award for Best Novel Nominated for a Gumshoe Award for Best Novel “At least once a year a new legal thriller hits the shelves, hyped to the stars, ...

Author: Mark Gimenez

Publisher: Anchor

ISBN: 0307278158

Category: Fiction

Page: 432

View: 974

In this riveting, unputdownable legal thriller, a partner at a prominent law firm is forced to choose between his enviable lifestyle and doing the right thing. Former college football star Scott Fenney has worked his way to the top of the heap at the Dallas firm of Ford Stevens. But when Clark McCall, wayward son of a Texas politician, gets himself murdered after a night of booze, drugs, and rough sex, Scott is assigned to defend the prime suspect, a heroine-addicted hooker named Shawanda Jones. The powers that be want her convicted—and Scott’s future at the firm may depend on it. But unfortunately for Scott, Shwanada claims she’s innocent, and he believes her.

Under the Color of Law

In this work I shall describe in precise detail how good faith in the formation of United States foreign policy along with adherence to the rule of law itself came to be America's first casualty in her new global war on terror, ...

Author: Martin Henn

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 073914331X

Category: Political Science

Page: 292

View: 332

Under the Color of Law constitutes a full and critical scholarly commentary to the text of five key Bush administration legal memoranda formative of U.S. counterterrorism policy from 2001 to 2009. This volume is dedicated to the idea that these documents are worthy of being read and critically examined in themselves as primary text, precisely because the act of critical assessment may yield meaningful policy reform in the ongoing debate facing the nation over balancing security interests with the preservation of civil liberties. This volume is intended to provide counterpoint for, and antithesis to, positions vigorously defended by President Bush's attorneys working at the OLC inside the Department of Justice, and it is designed to be used primarily in conjunction with and examined as response to the Bush-era documents themselves. Martin Henn investigates five central questions, each framed around commentary to a specific administration document. This work addresses the Yoo-Flanigan Memorandum of September 25, 2001, and asks whether any President has constitutional power to initiate a foreign war without congressional authorization. Regarding President Bush's November 13 executive order of 2001, Henn asks whether an emergency of war permits any President to usurp judicial and legislative powers to interpret law and define and punish offences against the law of nations. Along with many other questions these documents initiate, the author carefully analyzes and seeks to answer questions regarding the Bush administration, the use of interrogational coercion and torture in the war on terror.

Under the Color of Law

Michael McGarrity. UNDER THE COLOR OF LAW MICHAEL MCGARRITY DUTTON This is a work of fiction. Names, characters, places, and. Front Cover.

Author: Michael McGarrity

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 1101212195

Category: Fiction

Page: 400

View: 918

Newly-installed Santa Fe police chief Kevin Kerney receives a deadly welcome when a U.S. ambassador's ex-wife is brutally stabbed to death in her home. But before Kerney can begin to investigate, the FBI closes the case with trumped-up evidence. And the harder Kerney hunts for the truth, the more he knows that he may not survive the chase.

Summary Analysis of The Color of Law

Richard Rothstein's The Color of Law is a systematic recounting of the racial discrimination and segregation that was carried out by local, state, and federal agencies throughout the twentieth century, much of which continues in various ...

Author: SNAP Summaries

Publisher: ZIP Reads

ISBN:

Category: Social Science

Page:

View: 440

PLEASE NOTE: This is a summary and analysis of the book and not the original book. SNAP Summaries is wholly responsible for this content and is not associated with the original author in any way. If you are the author, publisher, or representative of the original work, please contact info[at]snapsummaries[dot]com with any questions or concerns. If you'd like to purchase the original book, please paste this link in your browser: https://amzn.to/3aQ7z6L Richard Rothstein’s The Color of Law is an academic and exhaustive recounting of the racial discrimination and segregation policies that were carried out by local, state, and federal agencies throughout the twentieth century, creating the segregation and wealth inequality that pervades America today. What does this SNAP Summary Include? - Synopsis of the original book - Key takeaways from each chapter - Guide to Key Figures who created the systems of segregation and the personal characters that Rothstein highlights - Key Events and landmark court decisions over the last 155 years that provided equal protection for all citizens under the law - Detailed history into the creation of the black-white wealth gap through policies that excluded African Americans from federal benefits and homeownership - Specific stories behind policy initiatives that invented a blueprint for cities across the nation to create and enforce segregation - In-deth Editorial Review of Rothstein's books - Analysis of potential solutions - Background on Richard Rothstein About the Original Book: Rothstein leaves no stone unturned as he recounts the worst of racism and federally-sanctioned segregation in the United States. He covers everything from the forced segregation of already integrated neighborhoods, Supreme Court decisions allowing local communities to bar the sales of homes to black families, the forced movement of black Americans into slums and ghettos, the inability for African Americans to receive federal support in buying homes, the inability of African Americans to receive fair treatment and pay in unions and at work, and the violence and intimidation against black Americans that was allowed to take place by local police, among other things. His thesis is simple: the current segregation that plagues American cities and suburbs is no accident—it is the product of design of a century of such explicitly racist policies not only being ignored by the federal government, but actively promoted by them. The Color of Law is a must-read for any American to understand our forgotten history, one that is often white-washed or completely ignored in history books today. DISCLAIMER: This book is intended as a companion to, not a replacement for, The Color of Law. SNAP Summaries is wholly responsible for this content and is not associated with the original author in any way. If you are the author, publisher, or representative of the original work, please contact info[at]snapsummaries.com with any questions or concerns. Please follow this link: https://amzn.to/3aQ7z6L to purchase a copy of the original book.

The Color of Law A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America

Readers interested in delving more deeply into the themes of The Color of Law would be well advised to familiarize themselves with these works before attempting to track down the more narrowly focused items listed in the Bibliography.

Author: Richard Rothstein

Publisher: Liveright Publishing

ISBN: 1631492861

Category: Social Science

Page: 368

View: 305

New York Times Bestseller • Notable Book of the Year • Editors' Choice Selection One of Bill Gates’ “Amazing Books” of the Year One of Publishers Weekly’s 10 Best Books of the Year Longlisted for the National Book Award for Nonfiction An NPR Best Book of the Year Winner of the Hillman Prize for Nonfiction Gold Winner • California Book Award (Nonfiction) Finalist • Los Angeles Times Book Prize (History) Finalist • Brooklyn Public Library Literary Prize This “powerful and disturbing history” exposes how American governments deliberately imposed racial segregation on metropolitan areas nationwide (New York Times Book Review). Widely heralded as a “masterful” (Washington Post) and “essential” (Slate) history of the modern American metropolis, Richard Rothstein’s The Color of Law offers “the most forceful argument ever published on how federal, state, and local governments gave rise to and reinforced neighborhood segregation” (William Julius Wilson). Exploding the myth of de facto segregation arising from private prejudice or the unintended consequences of economic forces, Rothstein describes how the American government systematically imposed residential segregation: with undisguised racial zoning; public housing that purposefully segregated previously mixed communities; subsidies for builders to create whites-only suburbs; tax exemptions for institutions that enforced segregation; and support for violent resistance to African Americans in white neighborhoods. A groundbreaking, “virtually indispensable” study that has already transformed our understanding of twentieth-century urban history (Chicago Daily Observer), The Color of Law forces us to face the obligation to remedy our unconstitutional past.

The Color of the Law

... of the U.S. Criminal Code.15 A remnant of the civil rights laws enacted by Congress during the Reconstruction era, ... only three statutes under which the CRS could prosecute.16 It held that persons acting “under color of law” could ...

Author: Gail Williams O'Brien

Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press

ISBN: 0807882305

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

View: 571

On February 25, 1946, African Americans in Columbia, Tennessee, averted the lynching of James Stephenson, a nineteen-year-old, black Navy veteran accused of attacking a white radio repairman at a local department store. That night, after Stephenson was safely out of town, four of Columbia's police officers were shot and wounded when they tried to enter the town's black business district. The next morning, the Tennessee Highway Patrol invaded the district, wrecking establishments and beating men as they arrested them. By day's end, more than one hundred African Americans had been jailed. Two days later, highway patrolmen killed two of the arrestees while they were awaiting release from jail. Drawing on oral interviews and a rich array of written sources, Gail Williams O'Brien tells the dramatic story of the Columbia "race riot," the national attention it drew, and its surprising legal aftermath. In the process, she illuminates the effects of World War II on race relations and the criminal justice system in the United States. O'Brien argues that the Columbia events are emblematic of a nationwide shift during the 1940s from mob violence against African Americans to increased confrontations between blacks and the police and courts. As such, they reveal the history behind such contemporary conflicts as the Rodney King and O. J. Simpson cases.

Under Color of Law

... including 42 U.S.C. (1983), and 18 U.S.C. 225, (known as the “Under Color of Law” statutes) which was supposed to reinforce the emancipation and the Thirteenth Amendment to the US Constitution established years earlier.

Author: A. Dwight Pettit

Publisher: iUniverse

ISBN: 149177701X

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 374

View: 558

Building on the backdrop of his involvement in three important civil-rights cases, author A. Dwight Pettit narrates his personal story from the 1940s to the present in Under Color of Law. A successful civil-rights, constitutional, and criminal lawyer, Pettit focuses on the meaning of these cases for himself, his family, and the nation. As a direct legal descendent and beneficiary of Brown v. Board of Education, Pettit shares its relevance to his education and to his career as a civil-rights lawyer. His memoir details a host of milestones, including an early childhood in the black community and a sudden transition into a tense, all-white world at Aberdeen High School where he was admitted by order of the U.S. District Court. He recalls his time at Howard University as well as the major litigation and representation in which he was involved as a lawyer, focusing in particular on his father’s case which involved the treatment, torment and retaliation his father experienced at his job for bringing his son’s desegregation lawsuit to trial. Attorney Pettit’s memoir also traces his involvement in politics, especially his intimate role in the Jimmy Carter 1976 presidential campaign and the Carter administration. Providing insight into past and current civil-rights issues, Under Color of Law underscores the Pettit family’s pursuit of justice in the context of the drive for equal rights for all. “One of the most emotional, fascinating books I have read. ... From start to finish, this book will have you question law as we know it and ask, in terms of racism and prejudice in America, ‘Has anything really changed?’” —“Zinah” Mary Brown, CEO, Elocution Productions


The Color of Crime Third Edition

“Criminal Law and Justice System Practices as Racist, White, and Racialized.” Washington and Lee Law Review 51 (1994): 431–64. Davis, Angela J. Arbitrary Justice: The Power of the American Prosecutor. New York: Oxford University Press, ...

Author: Katheryn Russell-Brown

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 1479801747

Category: Law

Page: 256

View: 129

"A powerful, engaging book that critiques the history of race, law, and justice by examining where race lives and breathes across the U.S. criminal-legal system"--

The Encyclopedia of Police Science

The defendant must be acting under color of law. This means that the misuse of power possessed by virtue of the law and made possible only because the wrongdoer is clothed with the authority of the state cannot be tolerated.

Author: Jack R. Greene

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 0415970008

Category: Political Science

Page: 1678

View: 548

First published in 1996, this work covers all the major sectors of policing in the United States. Political events such as the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, have created new policing needs while affecting public opinion about law enforcement. This third edition of the "Encyclopedia" examines the theoretical and practical aspects of law enforcement, discussing past and present practices.

The Color of Crime

Law as Microaggression.” 98 Yale Law Journal 1559 (1989). Davis, Peter. “Rodney King and the Decriminalization of Police Brutality in America: Direct and Judicial Access to the Grand Jury as Remedies for Victims of Police Brutality ...

Author: Katheryn Russell-Brown

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814774717

Category: Social Science

Page: 203

View: 407

Winner of the 2009 National Jewish Book Award in American Jewish Studies Recipient of the 2010 Guggenheim Fellowship in Humanities-Intellectual & Cultural History It has become an accepted truth: after World War II, American Jews chose to be silent about the mass murder of millions of their European brothers and sisters at the hands of the Nazis. In this compelling work, Hasia R. Diner shows the assumption of silence to be categorically false. Uncovering a rich and incredibly varied trove of remembrances—in song, literature, liturgy, public display, political activism, and hundreds of other forms—We Remember with Reverence and Love shows that publicly memorializing those who died in the Holocaust arose from a deep and powerful element of Jewish life in postwar America. Not only does she marshal enough evidence to dismantle the idea of American Jewish “forgetfulness,” she brings to life the moving and manifold ways that this widely diverse group paid tribute to the tragedy. Diner also offers a compelling new perspective on the 1960s and its potent legacy, by revealing how our typical understanding of the postwar years emerged from the cauldron of cultural divisions and campus battles a generation later. The student activists and “new Jews” of the 1960s who, in rebelling against the American Jewish world they had grown up in “a world of remarkable affluence and broadening cultural possibilities” created a flawed portrait of what their parents had, or rather, had not, done in the postwar years. This distorted legacy has been transformed by two generations of scholars, writers, rabbis, and Jewish community leaders into a taken-for-granted truth.


Politics Last Act of Defiance

Section 21: Private property compensation: refused to pay for private property that was unlawfully taken, and refused to pay for damages to the property Color of Law violation: “Authority using his or her power to willfully deprive a ...

Author: Scott Bolinger

Publisher: Scott Bolinger

ISBN:

Category: Humor

Page: 274

View: 534

Introduction This book was started based on my fight against a corrupt government. I served on a community board and ran for several public offices. The local city government and city council did not like my campaigns so I became a political target. I took a lot of heat from the local government for several years with them interfering with my business and my everyday life. I had to put up with their misinformation and defamatory campaigns. After a couple years of being attacked on a regular basses I decided that I should start recording every encounter. A couple encounters is not a big deal. 50 encounters starts to become a big deal. So I started collect any and all documents to prepare for a possible suit against the city. After several years of taking heat and the government refusal to let up, I figure they were not going to go away. The local government made me a political target which destroyed both my reputation and business. I had put up with the city creating misinformation about me and about my business. I was harassed, segregated, and ostracized and they put me in a position that forcing me to consider packing up and move out of town or to fight back. This book goes through many of the battles I went through. It also goes through many of the policies that I have sent to local, state and federal law makers to help promote change. I also go through several research analyses that I had conducted. I hope that this book will help serve as inspiration for people to keep fighting and if that don’t work, then fight smart.