The Levels of Analysis Paradigm

The chapter will show that the scientific paradigm has played a pivotal and important role in the creation of the current theoretical dilemma and will play a significant role in its resolution. From its inception, clinical psychology ...

Author: Thomas A. Skurky

Publisher: Praeger Pub Text


Category: Psychology

Page: 164

View: 726

"original and excellent ideas. . . . a distinct contribution to working with couples and with members of families . . . it will be quite helpful to many marital and family therapies." Albert Ellis, President, Institute for Rational-Emotive Therapy

Explorations in Social Theory

Although the idea of levels of analysis is implicit in much of sociology, it has received relatively little explicit ... To underscore this point, I want to further clarify the fact that the three paradigms discussed in Chapter 3 differ ...

Author: George Ritzer

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1412933285

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 791

George Ritzer is one of the leading social and cultural commentators of the present day. In this essential new book he considers some of the main tendencies in contemporary social theory. Included here are Ritzer's latest reflections on the uses and misuses of metatheory. According to Ritzer, sociology is a multiparadigm science. The differences and intensities of rivalries between paradigms are often very confusing for students and even for professional sociologists. This book seeks to find a way out of the confusion by sketching out the lineaments of a new integrated sociological paradigm and demonstrates how this paradigm can be applied. It shows the various ways in which Ritzer has developed rationalization theory to shed light on professional integration, the shape of consumer culture, hyperrationality and the state of sociology today.

Paradigm Lost

The major question in using these two paradigms concerns the levels of analysis . Certainly , as David Singer noted as early as 1961 , this is a key problem in the study of international relations . 80 Kenneth Waltz in his 1979 Theory ...

Author: David Jablonsky



Category: United States

Page: 117

View: 504

After every momentous event, there is usually a transition period, in which participants in the events, whether individuals or nation-states, attempt to chart their way into an unfamiliar future. In the United States in this century, there are three such transitions, each focused on America's role in the international arena. After World War I, the American people specifically rejected the global role for the United States implicit in Woodrow Wilson's strategic vision of collective security. In contrast to this "return to normalcy," after World War II the United States moved inexorably toward international leadership in response to the Soviet threat. The result was an acceptance of George Kennan's strategic vision of containing the Soviet Union on the Eurasian landmass and the subsequent bipolar confrontation of the two superpowers in a twilight war that lasted for over 40 years. Sometime in the penultimate decade of the 20th century, the United States and its allies won the cold war. Once again in the current transition period, the primary questions revolve around the management of power and America's role in global politics. Once again there are the issues of change and continuity. In terms of change, the cold war set in train a blend of integrative and disintegrative forces and trends that are adding to the complex tensions of the current transition. The integrative force that increasingly linked global economies in the cold war, for instance, also holds out the spectral potential of global depression or, at the very least, nations more susceptible to disintegrative actions, as the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait demonstrated. In a similar manner, the advances in communications and transportation that have spread the results of medical and scientific discoveries around the world are countered by the malign transnational results of nuclear technology, the drug trade, terrorism, AIDS and global warming.

Organizational Effectiveness And Improvement In Education

This focus is complicated by considerations of levels of analysis. Any subculture is a smaller version of paradigm 1 integration, characterized within its boundaries by consistency and consensus. Thus, the contradictions and ...

Author: Bennett , Nigel

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education (UK)

ISBN: 0335198430

Category: Education

Page: 288

View: 713

This book focuses upon the relationship between effectiveness and improvement in schools and colleges. The main theories and research findings concerning organizational effectiveness and improvement are brought together within this single volume. The book aims to provide an understanding of the way in which organizational effectiveness is conceptualized, measured and realized in practice. It also explores the ways in which change associated with organizational improvement is effectively managed. The emphasis throughout the book is upon making theory accessible and of practical use to those concerned with organizational effectiveness and improvement. It will assist practitioners and managers to understand how improvement can be initiated, managed and sustained at all levels within the organization. This volume forms part of the Leadership and Management in Education series. This four book series provides a carefully chosen selection of high quality readings on key contemporary themes in educational management: professional development, reflection on practice, leadership, team working, effectiveness and improvement, quality, strategy and resources. The series will be an important resource for classroom teachers and lecturers as well as those holding designated management posts in schools and colleges and will provide a valuable basis for professional development programmes.

Analytical Sociology and Social Mechanisms

The defining feature of this paradigm is its focus on the relations between two levels of analysis, the individual and the social. Traditionally, sociologists within the structure paradigm have fallen into two opposed camps: ...

Author: Pierre Demeulenaere

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139497960

Category: Social Science


View: 730

Mechanisms are very much a part of social life. For example, we can see that inequality has tended to increase over time, and that cities can become segregated. But how do such mechanisms work? Analytical sociology is an influential approach to sociology which holds that explanations of social phenomena should focus on the social mechanisms that bring them about. This book evaluates the major features of this approach, focusing on the significance of the notion of mechanism. Leading scholars seek to answer a number of questions in order to explore all the relevant dimensions of mechanism-based explanations in social sciences. How do social mechanisms link together individual actions and social environments? What is the role of multi-agent modelling in the conceptualization of mechanisms? Does the notion of mechanism solve the problem of relevance in social sciences explanations?

Realism and Psychological Science

These issues lie on a metatheoretical level but also on the worldview level so we can certainly ask whether we are justified to talk about paradigm confiicts at this level of analysis? To recap: the levels of analyses that we have ...

Author: David J. F. Maree

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 3030451437

Category: Psychology

Page: 151

View: 756

The book provides an argument why realism is a viable metatheoretical framework for psychological science. By looking at some variations of realism such as scientific realism, critical realism, situational realism and Ferraris’ new realism, a realist view of science is outlined that can feature as a metatheory for psychological science. Realism is a necessary correction for the mythical image of science responsible for and maintained by a number of dichotomies and polarities in psychology. Thus, the quantitative-qualitative dichotomy, scientist-practitioner polarity and positivist-constructionist opposition feed off and maintains a mythic image of science on levels of practice, methods and metatheory. Realism makes a clear distinction between ontology and epistemic access to reality, the latter which easily fits with softer versions of constructionism, and the former which grounds science in resistance and possibility, loosely translated as criticism. By taking science as a critical activity an issue such as the quantitative imperative looses its defining force as a hallmark of science - it provides epistemic access to certain parts of reality. In addition, essentially critical activities characteristic of various qualitative approaches may be welcomed as proper science. Academics, professionals and researchers in psychology would find value in situating their scholarly work in a realist metatheory avoiding the pitfalls of traditional methodologies and theories.

International Politics Power and Purpose in Global Affairs

paradigm A theoretical approach that includes one or more theories that share similar philosophical assumptions. Chapter 1 introduced four levels of analysis in international relations: the system, the state, the substate, ...

Author: Paul D'Anieri

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 0357136276

Category: Education

Page: 512

View: 725

D'Anieri's INTERNATIONAL POLITICS: POWER AND PURPOSE IN GLOBAL AFFAIRS, 5th Edition, helps you make the connection between analytical theories and real-world issues and events. Its focus on power and purpose involves both the goals that players have in international politics and the ways they have to achieve them. Detailed discussions offer up-to-date insight into populism and trade wars, critical international relations theory, international hierarchy, the impact of social media and bias, Brexit, U.S.-China trade conflict and much more. Thought-provoking case studies and features on history, policy and geography let you see the world from multiple perspectives, while critical-thinking questions ask you to examine what you have learned. Connection to You boxes show how international politics directly affects the lives of individuals -- and how individuals can influence international politics. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Cultural Meanings of News

By doing so, critical research carries attributes of both positivistic and constructionist paradigms. Ultimately, paradigm has a connection to level of analysis. More micro levels of analysis (individual, organizational, ...

Author: Daniel A. Berkowitz

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1412967651

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 409

View: 621

What is news? Why does news turn out like it does? What factors influence the creation, production, and dissemination of news? Cultural Meanings of News takes on these deceptively simple questions through an essential collection of seminal and contemporary studies by leaders in the fields of mass communication and media studies. Similar in format and purpose to editor Dan Berkowitz's award-winning Social Meanings of News, this new volume represents a conceptual update, a continuation of the discourse about the nature of news and how it comes to be, moving ideas ahead from the earlier tradition of sociological approaches to the more pervasive cultural perspectives that inform understandings about news. Cultural Meanings of News provides a carefully selected set of readings, organized into thematic areas that each probe a dimension of the literature: from sociological roots to cultural perspectives; news as narrative and cultural text; newswork as cultural ritual; news as cultural myth; news and its interpretive communities; news as a source and reflection of collective memory; toward the future of news research. This text-reader provides students and scholars with first-hand exposure to cultural approaches to the study of news, while also providing an organizing framework for understanding the commonalties and differences between threads in the research. The goals are to engage readers through guided immersion in the material.

Security and Development in Global Politics

However, this focus on the state as the level of analysis and arena for action has been challenged both theoretically and practically. ... These policy developments are also helping to push the two arenas toward paradigm shifts.

Author: Joanna Spear

Publisher: Georgetown University Press

ISBN: 1589018907

Category: Political Science

Page: 352

View: 164

Security and development matter: they often involve issues of life and death and they determine the allocation of truly staggering amounts of the world’s resources. Particularly since the start of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, there has been momentum in policy circles to merge the issues of security and development to attempt to end conflicts, create durable peace, strengthen failing states, and promote the conditions necessary for people to lead healthier and more prosperous lives. In many ways this blending of security and development agendas seems admirable and designed to produce positive outcomes all around. However, it is often the case that the two concepts in combination do not receive equal weight, with security issues getting priority over development concerns. This is not desirable and actually undermines security in the longer term. Moreover, there are major challenges in practice when security practitioners and development practitioners are asked to agree on priorities and work together. Security and Development in Global Politics illuminates the common points of interest but also the significant differences between security and development agendas and approaches to problem solving. With insightful chapter pairings—each written by a development expert and a security analyst—the book explores seven core international issues: aid, humanitarian assistance, governance, health, poverty, trade and resources, and demography. Using this comparative structure, the book effectively assesses the extent to which there really is a nexus between security and development and, most importantly, whether the link should be encouraged or resisted.

Predicting Outcomes in United States Japan Trade Negotiations

In social science research one has to deal both with " empirical reality " and abstraction , or the level of analysis . A traditional state - centric paradigm is a good example of this duality . In this view , international relations ...

Author: Norio Naka

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 9781567200058

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 269

View: 431

Four multidimensionally-layered conceptual models systematically describe and explain the political process of the SII, its initiation and agreements, testing propositions for different degrees of Japanese concessions.