DHEA and the Brain

DHEA and the Brain reviews a range of existing studies regarding DHEA administration to animals and humans.

Author: Robert Morfin

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0203301218

Category: Medical

Page: 226

View: 350

DHEA and the Brain reviews a range of existing studies regarding DHEA administration to animals and humans. Chapter authors evaluate DHEA metabolism in tissues and organs, explore DHEA effects in the liver that may be of importance to the brain, and discuss recent findings regarding how DHEA is made in the brain. New perspectives about the neuropro

Advances in Nervous System Research and Application 2011 Edition

... of the metabolism of DHEA in rat brain,' new data in central nervous system. ... 7alpha-OH DHEA and 7beta-OH DHEA are the two important metabolites of ...

Author:

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1464920664

Category: Medical

Page: 1795

View: 617

Advances in Nervous System Research and Application: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Nervous System. The editors have built Advances in Nervous System Research and Application: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Nervous System in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Advances in Nervous System Research and Application: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

DHEA and the Brain

involved in the metabolism of the latter; (ii) local neurosteroid ... our attention on DHEA and report on results showing that in adult rat brain tissue the ...

Author: Robert Morfin

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1134475756

Category: Medical

Page: 226

View: 177

DHEA and the Brain reviews a range of existing studies regarding DHEA administration to animals and humans. Chapter authors evaluate DHEA metabolism in tissues and organs, explore DHEA effects in the liver that may be of importance to the brain, and discuss recent findings regarding how DHEA is made in the brain. New perspectives about the neuropro

DHEA in Human Health and Aging

Such metabolism could underlie the androgenic actions of DHEA in mouse brain, although some such activity can be detected even after blocking metabolism to ...

Author: Ronald Ross Watson

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439838844

Category: Medical

Page: 472

View: 202

Reduced production of DHEA associated with the diseases that accompany aging has led to its use as a nutritional supplement for antiaging, metabolic support, and other purposes. While animal studies have clearly shown substantial benefits of DHEA in combating various disease states, the effect of low levels of DHEA in humans is less established, an

Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

Special attention in this respect has been given to DHEA. Neurosteroids appear to exist in rat brains in the free form, as sulfates, lipoidal esters, ...

Author: Wilfried M.A. Niessen

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420014549

Category: Medical

Page: 632

View: 818

A constructive evaluation of the most significant developments in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and its uses for quantitative bioanalysis and characterization for a diverse range of disciplines, Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Third Edition offers a well-rounded coverage of the latest technological developments and

Neurosteroids and Brain Function

PREG is produced from available cholesterol by oligodendrocytes in the rat brain (Hu et al., 1987), and DHEA production results from a brainspecific ...

Author:

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0080544231

Category: Science

Page: 208

View: 946

International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 46 presents in-depth reviews on such ground-breaking topics as assembly and intracellular trafficking of GABA A receptors, D-1 dopamine receptors, and Alzheimer's disease. This series offers the most comprehensive and up-to-date information available and is a must for anyone in the field. Includes a historical overview of neurosteroid research Contains a chapter on neurosteroid biosynthesis and regulation Presents current methods of neurosteroid measurement and analysis Discusses neurosteroid function in both the normal and the pathological brain Chapters address the function of neurosteroid in: Stress Receptor plasticity and function Learning and Memory Alcohol use Depression

Neurosteroids

The aim of this Research Topic is to celebrate three decades of research on neurosteroids by gathering a bouquet of review papers and original articles from leading scientists in the flourishing field of neurosteroids.

Author: Hubert Vaudry

Publisher: Frontiers E-books

ISBN: 2889190781

Category:

Page:

View: 439

Thirty years ago, the group of Baulieu and colleagues discovered that certain steroid hormones were present in higher amounts in the brain than in the plasma, and also found that suppression of circulating steroids by adrenalectomy and castration did not affect the concentration of pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone and their sulfate esters in the rat brain. These seminal observations led to the concept that the brain, in very much the same way as the adrenal cortex, testis, ovary and placenta, was capable of synthesizing steroids. These brain born steroids, called neurosteroids, have been found to exert a vast array of biological activities. A number of steroidogenic enzymes have now been identified in the central nervous system by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, and the neuronal and hormonal mechanisms regulating the biosynthesis of neurosteroids have been partially elucidated. The aim of this Research Topic is to celebrate three decades of research on neurosteroids by gathering a bouquet of review papers and original articles from leading scientists in the flourishing field of neurosteroids.

Glucose Metabolism in the Brain

DHEA prevents oxidative stress-mediated damage induced by hyperglycemia in rat brain (Aragno et al., 1997) and in hippocampal primary neuronal cultures ...

Author:

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080491596

Category: Medical

Page: 555

View: 952

Regulation of glucose at the biochemical level affects every area of the brain, and has impact from cellular to behavioral brain function. It plays an important role in diseases such as diabetes, stroke, schizophrenia and drug abuse as well as in normal and dysfunctional memory and cognition. This volume represents a thorough examination of all the major issues that are relevant to glucose metabolism by brain cells in relation to disease, combining basic research and clinical findings in a single, indispensable reference. Serves as an essential reference on glucose metabolism in the brain Presents authoritative accounts by leading researchers in the field Includes thorough reviews with provocative sections on future directions

Hormones Gender and the Aging Brain

Second, preclinical studies suggest that DHEA(S) protects against certain ... Accumulation of DHEA(S) in rat brain is largely independent of adrenal and ...

Author: Mary F. Morrison

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139426459

Category: Medical

Page: 359

View: 547

The significance of hormone action in psychiatry has been long studied, now including the psychiatric effects of hormones on the aging process. This clinical reference addresses the hormonal basis of mental disorders in older people. Hormones influence a wide range of states and conditions, from pain tolerance and anorexia to attention, mood, immunity, cardiovascular and cognitive function, schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Written by an eminent team of psychiatrists, psychologists, geriatricians and neuropharmacologists, this book brings together established information and findings in four sections: • An overview of the basic science of neurosteroids • Sex difference and the roles that cortisol, thyroid hormone, and the sex steroids estrogen, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone play in common mental disorders and pain sensitivity • Psychoneuroimmunology in relation to age • Sex differences and hormones in psychotropic drug metabolism in the elderly.

Progress in Medicinal Chemistry

The adult rat brain does not have 172-hydroxylase activity and P450170 mRNA ... Neurosteroids DHEA and pregnenolone are converted by rat brain microsomes ...

Author:

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080862859

Category: Medical

Page: 215

View: 753

This volume reviews recent advances in five important areas of medicinal chemistry which will be of interest both to chemists and to scientists of other disciplines engaged in medicines research and development. Included are accounts of successful drug discovery programmes, disease targets of unmet medical need, and recent progress in new technologies which are considered by many to hold the key to future developments in medicinal chemistry.The style and organisation of chapters follow a similar pattern to previous volumes but references, where appropriate, now include website addresses of the World Wide Web.


Neurobiology of Steroids

(hon-DHEA) (3fi.5uTH-PROG) (fin-hTH-PHOG) FIG. 1 Neurosteroid biosynthesis and metabolism in the rat brain. Dotted arrows indicate metabolic conversions not ...

Author: E. Ronald de Kloet

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 1483288366

Category: Science

Page: 552

View: 451

Steroid hormones are unique compounds in that they are active at the interface of peripheral endocrine events and neural mechanisms. Thus their effects present an important peripheral signaling system to alter brain function. This volume presents state-of-the-art and classical techniques for the study of steroid hormones and their receptors and their effects and actions. Comprehensive protocols included for the study of Steroid kinetics and metabolism Steroid receptors Molecular and cellular effects of steroids Steroid effects on integrated systems

Neurosteroids and the Nervous System

​While steroids from the periphery have profound effects on the nervous system, the nervous system also produces its own steroids de novo (“neurosteroids”).

Author: Steven R. King

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461455596

Category: Medical

Page: 125

View: 596

​While steroids from the periphery have profound effects on the nervous system, the nervous system also produces its own steroids de novo (“neurosteroids”). The physiological importance of neurosteroids is beginning to be understood. These steroids potentially have roles in sedative/hypnotic behavior, anxiety, learning, and memory. At the cellular level, neurosteroids affect neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity and cell proliferation and survival. Early findings hold promise for future strategies to treat specific psychologicalconditions and neurological diseases. This Brief will focus on the current state of understanding of brainderived neurosteroids.


Dehydroepiandrosterone

The neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) protects the retina from ... lipid peroxidation and lipofuscin accumulation in aging rat brain regions.

Author: Gerald Litwack

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128143622

Category: Science

Page: 459

View: 703

Dehydroepiandrosterone, Volume 108, the latest release in the Vitamins and Hormones series first published in 1943, covers the field of hormone action, vitamin action, X-ray crystal structure, physiology and enzyme mechanisms, with this release focusing on topics such as Dehydroepiandrosterone Research: Past, Current and Future, Astrocyte Neuroprotection and Dehydroepiandrosterone, Mutation of HSD3B2 Gene and Fate of Dehydroepiandrosterone, Autophagy and Autophagic Cell Death: Uncovering New Mechanisms Whereby Dehydroepiandrosterone Promotes Beneficial Effects on Human Health, Dehydroepiandrosterone and Cardiovascular Disease, Dehydroepiandrosterone and Experimental Osteoarthritis, The Role of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in Skeletal Muscle, Mechanism of Action of Dehydroepiandrosterone, and more. Focuses on the newest aspects of hormone action in connection with diseases Lays the groundwork for the focus of new chemotherapeutic targets Represents reviews on emerging areas in hormone action, cellular regulators and signaling pathways

Steroid Analysis

Different neuronal cell lines of mouse and rat brain were compared with ... Further studies on DHEA metabolism, involvingidentification ofmetabolites by ...

Author: Hugh L. J. Makin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402097751

Category: Science

Page: 1224

View: 430

The second edition of this handbook concentrates on the analysis of steroids in biological fluids. It offers analysis of low levels of steroid analytes in biological fluids. This new edition also provides an extra chapter on pharmaceutical aspects of steroid analysis. Coverage details spectroscopic and other methods, including UV and IR absorption spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, chromatography and immunoassay of steroids.

T Lymphocytes Subpopulations in Immunotoxicology

Unexpectedly , in rodents the brain is the site where concentrations of DHEAS ( and , at a lower level , DHEA ) are highest . Thus rat brain contained an ...

Author: Ian Kimber

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471971948

Category: Science

Page: 312

View: 647

T Lymphocyte Subpopulations in Immunotoxicology Edited by Ian Kimber ZENECA Pharmaceuticals, Central Toxicology Laboratory, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK and Mary Jane K. Selgrade US Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, NC, USA Immunotoxicology is a diverse discipline that embraces the investigation of the adverse health effects that may result from the interaction of xenobiotics with the immune system. T lymphocytes orchestrate adaptive immune responses and are of central importance in the consideration of immunotoxicity. These cells and/or the tissue responsible for their functional maturation (the thymus) have been implicated as the primary or secondary targets for chemical insult. Moreover, T lymphocytes play pivotal roles in the induction and elicitation of chemical and protein allergy and in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. Classically, T lymphocytes have been divided into two main populations: CD4 helper T cells and CD8 suppressor/cytotoxic T cells. It is now apparent that there exists within both populations considerable functional heterogeneity, characterized usually by variable cytokine secretion patterns. Two major subpopulations of T helper (Th) cells have been identified and designated Th1 and Th2, with similar, but less well characterized, sub-types of cytotoxic (Tc) cells having been described also. The discovery of functional subpopulations of Th (and Tc) cells has profoundly influenced our view of the immune response and, in particular, our appreciation of the way in which the immune system can tailor responses to meet challenges of different types. This has also translated into a much more detailed understanding of certain immunopathologic processes and the role of T lymphocytes in the development of allergic, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. This book explores the role of T lymphocyte subpopulations in the development and expression of immunotoxic effects. Constituent chapters reveal that a consideration of the impact of chemicals on these diverse T cell populations and the polarization of T cell responses has already contributed greatly to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying immunotoxicity, including immune suppression and allergic and autoimmune responses.


Sex Hormones

... a cell type important for brain immune function, is reported to exclusively convert this steroid to Aenediol, the major route for DHEA metabolism in rat ...

Author: Raghvendra Dubey

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 9533078561

Category: Medical

Page: 444

View: 888

Sex Hormones not only regulate reproductive function, but they also play a prominent role in the biology and physiology of several organs/tissues and in the pathophysiology of several diseases. During the last two decades, the information on the mechanisms of action of sex hormones, such as estrogens and androgens, has rapidly evolved from the conventional nuclear receptor dependent mechanisms to include additional non-nuclear, non-genomic and receptor-independent mechanisms. This highlights the need to update the current knowledge on sex hormones and their mode of action. Increasing evidence that exogenous/epigenetic factors can influence sex hormone production and action highlights the need to update our knowledge on the mechanisms involved. This book provides a systematic and updated overview of the male/female sex-hormones and their impact in the biology and physiology of various organs. Additionally, the book discusses their positive and negative association with the pathophysiology of various diseases (e.g. osteoporosis, cardiovascular-disease, hypogonadism, reproduction, cancer) and their therapeutic potential.