US Strategy in Africa

This book outlines the construction, interpretations and understanding of US strategy towards Africa in the early twenty-first century.

Author: David J Francis

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136996621

Category: History

Page: 224

View: 492

This book outlines the construction, interpretations and understanding of US strategy towards Africa in the early twenty-first century. No single issue or event in the recent decades in Africa has provoked so much controversy and unified hostility and opposition as the announcement by former President George W. Bush of the establishment of the United Stated Africa Command – AFRICOM. The intensity and sheer scale of the unprecedented unity of opposition to AFRICOM across Africa surprised many experts and lead them to ask why such a hostile reaction occurred. This book explores the conception of AFRICOM and the subsequent reaction in two ways. Firstly, the contributors critically engage with the creation and global imperatives for the establishment of AFRICOM and present an analytical outline of African security in relation to and within the context of the history of US foreign and security policy approaches to Africa. Secondly, the book has original chapter contributions by some of the key actors involved in the development and implementation of the AFRICOM project including Theresa Whelan, the former US Deputy Assistant Secretary for African Affairs. This is not only an attempt to contribute to the academic and policy-relevant debates based on the views of those who are intimately involved in the design and implementation of the AFRICOM project but also to show, in their own words, that ‘America has no clandestine agenda for Africa’. This book will be of interest to students of US foreign policy/national security, strategic studies, international security and African politics. David J. Francis is Chair of African Peace & Conflict Studies in the Department of Peace Studies at the University of Bradford.

Expanding US Military Command in Africa

This book discusses the systematic expansion of the United States Africa Command (AFRICOM) across the continent of Africa.

Author: Tshepo T. Gwatiwa

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0429832079

Category: History

Page: 208

View: 343

This book discusses the systematic expansion of the United States Africa Command (AFRICOM) across the continent of Africa. This book posits that AFRICOM expansion in Africa is part of a broader system of accumulation based on a government-business-media (GBM) complex. Applying the concept at both structural and descriptive levels, the GBM complex is a function of the synergy between the state’s quest for power, businesses’ need for expansion, and the informational and hegemonic functions of media actors. The United States’ GBM complex in Africa is supported—and in some locations spearheaded—by its military, with dispossessing effects on local actors. Drawing from African case studies, analytical accounts and empirical case studies, this book explores AFRICOM’s role within this broader strategy. The volume maps both the methods and the scope of this expansion, as well as local resistance to this process, and comprises perspectives from the five regions of Africa, key sub-regional organizations and voices from Africa’s regional hegemons. This book will be of much interest to students of security studies, strategic studies, African politics and International Relations.


Refining American Strategy in Africa

This is a particularly wise approach to Sub-Saharan Africa.

Author: Steven Metz

Publisher:

ISBN: 9781423527626

Category:

Page: 78

View: 928

Traditionally, the United States has not been a major player in the security environment of Sub-Saharan Africa, relying instead on European nations to provide outside assistance to African states. Today, it is appropriate to rethink this neglect. Africa is undergoing vast political, social, and economic changes. A consistent and well-designed American strategy in the region could help tilt the scales in favor of security and stability. In this study, Dr. Steven Metz of the Strategic Studies Institute provides a broad overview of the African security environment as a basis for recommendations on the refinement of American strategy in that region. He assesses both the opportunities for positive change which exist today, and the obstacles. While only Africans themselves can determine the future of their region, an American strategy which discourages proxy aggression, encourages private initiatives in the economic and political spheres, and uses the U.S. military, particularly the Army, to engage its African counterparts could pay great dividends. American defense strategy calls for using the military to help shape the global security environment, preempting and deterring conflict and building regional mechanisms for security. This is a particularly wise approach to Sub-Saharan Africa. The Strategic Studies Institute is pleased to offer this study as part of the ongoing debate over how the U.S. military can best contribute to the mission of shaping the security environment.


Africa

The History of China In Africa * 4. China in Africa Operational Approach * 5. The United States in Africa * 6. Demonstration of China's Employment of Unrestricted Warfare * 7. Effective Use and Consequences of Unrestricted Warfare * 8.

Author: U. S. Military

Publisher:

ISBN: 9781697129045

Category:

Page: 76

View: 413

China's investment, development, and growing influence in Africa has significant consequences to the United States. China competes using unrestricted warfare. Thus, investment does not guarantee sustainable growth for African countries and potentially destabilizes economies. Furthermore, this practice leaves nations vulnerable to violent extremist recruitment and criminal networks. The purpose of this study is to provide insight into Xi Jinping's Chinese Dream, Africa's role in Xi's vision, and China's use of unrestricted warfare. The underlying thesis of this study argues China's strategy in Africa effectively employs elements of UW as a means to project strategic influence in Africa by extending operational reach for its military forces and thus, threatens U.S. security. By understanding how China uses unrestricted warfare in Africa, U.S. military planners gain insight into the China's deliberate employment of unrestricted warfare to accomplish President Xi Jinping's grand strategy. This more comprehensive understanding of the complexity of China's investment on the continent enhances U.S. efforts to stabilize, counter VEO emergence, and create self-reliant partners to increase regional security.Contents: 1. Introduction * 2. Case Study * 3. The History of China In Africa * 4. China in Africa Operational Approach * 5. The United States in Africa * 6. Demonstration of China's Employment of Unrestricted Warfare * 7. Effective Use and Consequences of Unrestricted Warfare * 8. Findings and Analysis * 9. ConclusionThis compilation also includes a reproduction of the 2019 Worldwide Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community.Africa remains a vitally important part of the U.S. national security strategy. In the 2017 National Security Strategy (NSS), the United States acknowledges China's economic encroachment with considerable potential security risks due to undermining Africa's long-term economic development. The NSS states, "China is expanding its economic and military presence in Africa, growing from a small investor in the continent two decades ago into Africa's largest trading partner today. Some Chinese practices undermine Africa's long-term development by corrupting elites, dominating extractive industries, and locking countries into unsustainable and opaque debts and commitments." As of 2018, the United States acknowledged this threat to stability in the region while United States Africa Command (AFRICOM) remained focused on addressing "violent extremism" in its posture statement. The emerging Africa strategy and the 2019 AFRICOM Posture Statement acknowledge the threat of great power competition, nesting the aims of AFRICOM with the strategic guidance of the 2017 National Security Strategy, and 2018 National Defense Strategy to compete with China. However, AFRICOM is not currently resourced with the proper means to compete with China, combat violent extremism, and retain the freedom of maneuver necessary to further U.S. interests. China's strategy in Africa effectively employs elements of UW as a means to project strategic influence in Africa by extending operational reach for its military forces. China expands its efforts using synchrony, the pursuit of targeted but limited objectives, and using multi-dimensionality regarding means. China's use of aid and economic development in its practice of UW challenges U.S. strategy in Africa, and legitimacy in Africa threatening U.S. national security. Thus, the United States must develop strategy beyond addressing "violent extremism" to respond to China's expanding operational reach and access.



India in Africa

Introduction -- India and Africa : history -- India's quest for natural resources -- Opportunities for Indian businesses -- Diplomatic in-roads -- An emerging power's military engagements -- The impact on Africa -- Implications for the ...

Author: John-Peter Pham

Publisher: Strategic Studies Institute

ISBN: 158487483X

Category: Africa

Page: 50

View: 244

Introduction -- India and Africa : history -- India's quest for natural resources -- Opportunities for Indian businesses -- Diplomatic in-roads -- An emerging power's military engagements -- The impact on Africa -- Implications for the United States and its strategy in Africa -- Conclusion.


National Interests and Strategy Sub Saharan Africa

The end of the Cold War and dissolution of the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact caused the United States and its allies to reevaluate its national interests and strategy in and toward the countries of sub-Saharan Africa.

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 10

View: 401

The end of the Cold War and dissolution of the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact caused the United States and its allies to reevaluate its national interests and strategy in and toward the countries of sub-Saharan Africa. This paper examines the past US strategy toward Africa and develops a strategy for the future. Although there are many ways to develop a national strategy, this paper will concentrate on identifying US national interests, reviewing the strategic context and trends in the region, and identifying the threats and opportunities critical to our national interest. We will recommend US policy objectives and the tools of statecraft most likely to achieve those objectives and achieve our national interests. Since the retreat of European colonialism from Africa and the establishment of over 40 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, the people of Africa have suffered through famine, pestilence, disease, and countless wars with an appalling loss of life. More important, Africa was yet another battlefield of the Cold War. Both the East and West vied for power and influence across the African continent From US-Soviet competition for influence in Ethiopia to international intervention in Angola, African nations served as the intellectual, cultural, and sometimes physical battleground of the Cold War.

The United States and the Transformation of African Security

Based on their testimony presented to the Africa Subcommittee of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on International Relations, this study by Dr. Steven Metz and Colonel Dan Henk of the U.S. Army War College examines the ACRI.

Author: Dan Henk

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Africa

Page: 47

View: 890

Traditionally, the U.S. military has not been heavily involved in Sub-Saharan Africa. Since the end of the Cold War, though, this has begun to change. U.S. forces have supported several humanitarian relief and evacuation operations associated with African conflicts. They have also conducted numerous "engagement" activities aimed at assisting African states and their militaries during the transition to democracy. But Africa remains a region where U.S. national security interests must be promoted with limited resources. This makes a sophisticated and coherent strategy vitally important. Helping Africans develop a capability to avoid or solve their region's security problems has reemerged recently as an important goal of American strategy, and the African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI) is its centerpiece. Based on their testimony presented to the Africa Subcommittee of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on International Relations, this study by Dr. Steven Metz and Colonel Dan Henk of the U.S. Army War College examines the ACRI. Significantly, it does so by placing the ACRI in a wider, long-term strategic context.

Brazil s Africa Strategy

The book analyzes Brazil's Africa engagement as a rising power's strategy to gain global recognition, linking it to Brazil's broader foreign policy objectives and shedding light on the mechanisms of Brazilian status-seeking in Africa.

Author: C. Stolte

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137499575

Category: Political Science

Page: 220

View: 120

The book analyzes Brazil's Africa engagement as a rising power's strategy to gain global recognition, linking it to Brazil's broader foreign policy objectives and shedding light on the mechanisms of Brazilian status-seeking in Africa.

United States Strategy for Africa Through 2010

Turmoil in the Soviet Union, continuing decline in black Africa, and the persistent United States Government budget deficit have underlined the need for a re-examination of U.S. national interests in sub-Saharan Africa, and the threats to ...

Author: Jeff Panitt

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Africa

Page: 9

View: 918


India in Africa Impllications of an Emerging Power for Africom and U S Strategy

In this monograph, Dr. J. Peter Pham provides a framework for understanding both India's approach to Africa, especially in the military and security sector, and the responses of Africans to it.

Author: J. Pham

Publisher: CreateSpace

ISBN: 9781477627563

Category:

Page: 60

View: 940

Several trends make this monograph topic important. First, Africa, long marginalized in international relations, has emerged today as a strategically, diplomatically, and economically vital component in the global balance of the 21st century, with the major powers seeking access to the continent's resources and forging ties with African governments and peoples. The establishment of the United States Africa Command (AFRICOM) is but one indication of America's growing network of political, economic, and security commitments in Africa. Second, the United States is also actively seeking to build a strong strategic partnership with India, a country whose rapid economic growth, geopolitical position, and proven commitment to democracy make it an especially attractive ally not just in South Asia, but more broadly. Third, as it continues its rise to global power status, India is cultivating its own expanding set of relations across the African continent-a phenomenon that is nowhere as well known as the increasing penetration there of the People's Republic of China. In this monograph, Dr. J. Peter Pham provides a framework for understanding both India's approach to Africa, especially in the military and security sector, and the responses of Africans to it. He also argues that the United States should engage India in Africa, both as an end in itself and within the context of broader U.S.-India ties. What emerges from this analysis is a call to both greater mutual awareness and concrete bilateral cooperation that would not only positively benefit the two countries, but also redound to the advantage of their African allies. Strategic Studies Institute.

More Than Humanitarianism

"This Council-sponsored Independent Task Force finds that Africa is of growing strategic importance to the United States in addition to being an important humanitarian concern.

Author: Anthony Lake

Publisher: Council on Foreign Relations

ISBN: 0876093535

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 148

View: 344

This Council-sponsored Independent Task Force finds that Africa is of growing strategic importance to the United States in addition to being an important humanitarian concern. In a world where economic opportunity, security threats, disease, and even support for democracy transcend borders, a policy based on humanitarian concerns alone serves neither U.S. interests, nor Africa's. Furthermore, the Task Force finds that critical humanitarian interests would be better served by a more comprehensive U.S. approach toward Africa; nor is it valid to treat Africa more as an object of charity than a diverse continent with partners the United States can work with to advance shared objectives.



Wooing the Dark Continent U S and China Engagement Strategy in Africa is it Complimentary Or Competition

This monograph evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of Chinese foreign policy towards Africa, discusses the history of engagement of the People's Republic of China with the African continent, and examines the implications of this ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 67

View: 494

This monograph evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of Chinese foreign policy towards Africa, discusses the history of engagement of the People's Republic of China with the African continent, and examines the implications of this relationship in regards to the United States (U.S.). The monograph examines the opinions of Africans regarding the continent?s status as a major resource provider for the 21st century and the associated interest from leading economic powers around the world. Finally with the emergence of Africa Command (AFRICOM), this paper lays out recommendations to ensure a more complete understanding of Chinese intentions in Africa and provides AFRICOM planners with methods and means to compete and compliment Chinese efforts across the continent. This paper takes into account both current arguments regarding China as both a partner and competitor and provides an unbiased framework for working with China and Africa that meets U.S. strategic interests and needs.

U S Security Cooperation with Africa

At the same time, the threat of violent extremism heavily influences U.S. security cooperation with Africa.

Author: Robert J. Griffiths

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136291482

Category: Political Science

Page: 208

View: 597

As Africa’s strategic importance has increased over the past decade and a half, United States security cooperation with the continent has expanded. The most visible dimension of this increased engagement was the establishment of the U.S. Military Command for Africa (AFRICOM). Some critics are skeptical of AFRICOM’s purpose and see the militarization of U.S. Africa policy while others question its effectiveness. Recognizing the link between development and security, AFRICOM represents a departure from the traditional organization of military commands because of its holistic approach and the involvement of the Department of State as well as other U.S. government stakeholders. Nevertheless, AFRICOM’s effort to combine security and development faces formidable conceptual and operational challenges in trying to ensure both American and African security interests. The human security perspective’s emphasis on issues that go beyond traditional state-centered security to include protecting individuals from threats of hunger, disease, crime, environmental degradation, and political repression as well as focusing on social and economic justice is an important component of security policy. At the same time, the threat of violent extremism heavily influences U.S. security cooperation with Africa. In this examination of the context of U.S.-African security relations, Robert J. Griffiths outlines the nature of the African state, traces the contours of African conflict, surveys the post-independence history of U.S. involvement on the continent, and discusses policy organization and implementation and the impact of U.S. experiences in Iraq and Afghanistan on the U.S.-Africa security relationship. Africa’s continuing geostrategic significance, the influence of China and other emerging markets in the region, and America’s other global engagements, especially in light of U.S. fiscal realities, demonstrate the complexity of U.S.-African security cooperation.