Use of Weapons

This futuristic novel tells the story of a burned-out secret agent who is called back to work and thinks about getting back at employers who took advantage of him in the past

Author: Iain Banks

Publisher: Spectra


Category: Fiction

Page: 412

View: 129

This futuristic novel tells the story of a burned-out secret agent who is called back to work and thinks about getting back at employers who took advantage of him in the past

The Legality of Threat Or Use of Nuclear Weapons

He declared a " countervalue " nuclear attack on cities and industry , as distinguished from a " counterforce " attack on nuclear forces and installations , to be illegal , stating : It cannot be accepted that the use of nuclear weapons ...

Author: John Burroughs

Publisher: LIT Verlag M√ľnster

ISBN: 9783825835163

Category: Law

Page: 192

View: 334

" ""The threat or use of nuclear weapons would generally be contrary to the rules of international law applicable in armed conflict, and in particular the principles and rules of humanitarian law ... There exists an obligation to pursue in good faith and bring to a conclusion negotiations leading to nuclear disarmament in all its aspects under strict and effective international control."" - Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice, 8 July 1996 ""This book shows how courageous states from the developing world, working in concert with visionary lawyers, physicians and other sectors of international civil society, boldly obtained astonishing results from the highest court in the world. The World Court clearly ruled that the threat or use of nuclear weapons is illegal in almost all conceivable circumstances. The Court further underlined the unconditional obligation of the nuclear weapon states to begin and conclude negotiations on nuclear disarmament in all its aspects. It is now up to all of us to determine the follow-up, whatever the opposition. We cannot end this century without clear commitments and steps to eliminate nuclear weapons."" - Razali Ismail, Permanent Representative of Malaysia to the United Nations, President of the United Nations General Assembly, 1996-1997 ""It is not often that a judicial opinion on a given question is both hailed and criticized by participants on all sides of the question. This book, written by a leading member of the team that helped to prepare the case on the illegality of the threat and use of nuclear weapons, explains succinctly what the World Court, and the judges in their separate statements, did and did not say. In so doing, it makes a compelling case for the proposition that the Opinion represents a milestone on the road to nuclear abolition."" - Peter Weiss, Co-President, International Association of Lawyers Against Nuclear Arms The 20th century has been defined in large part by the unleashing of the terrible destructive power of the atom, and the subsequent struggle to overcome the threat of nuclear annihilation. If humankind survives, the 8 July 1996 Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice, and the extraordinary process that led up to it, will have played an essential role. The (Il)legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons is a concise yet thorough guide to the case. In straightforward language, it describes the history of this unprecedented initiative and summarizes and explains states' arguments to the Court, the Court's findings, and the separate statements of the judges. The author provides cogent expert analysis and, most importantly, reveals how the opinion imparts hope and points the way to the future: "" The Court has authoritatively interpreted law which states acknowledge they must follow, including humanitarian law protecting civilians from indiscriminate effects of warfare, the United Nations Charter, and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. The implications are profound: abandonment of reliance on the threat and use of nuclear weapons as an instrument of national policy, and expeditious elimination of nuclear arsenals. The opinion can be cited as an authoritative statement of the law in any political or legal setting - including the United Nations and national courts and parliaments - in which nuclear weapon policies are challenged."" John Burroughs, an attorney for the Western States Legal Foundation in California, served as the legal coordinator for the World Court Project/International Association of Lawyers Against Nuclear Arms at the November 1995 hearings before the International Court of Justice. "


The significance of this principle lies in the fact that combatants are not necessarily unrestricted in their use of weapons even in the absence of a specific prohibition relating to those weapons. This is in contrast to the general ...

Author: International Court of Justice


ISBN: 9210014278


Page: 669

View: 226

This case, entered on the Court's General List on 19 December 1994, under number 95, was the subject of an Advisory Opinion delivered on 8 July 1996. The documents relating to the case include: Volume I. Request for Advisory Opinion; Written Proceedings; Volume II. Oral Statements. A CD-ROM containing the annexes can be found in a sleeve at the end of each volume.


From the foregoing, it is clear that "military necessity", while often claimed as a justification by states and military commanders who have violated the laws of war, is powerless to justify the use of nuclear weapons when the entire ...

Author: International Court of Justice


ISBN: 9210014294


Page: 1021

View: 193

This case, entered on the Court's General List under no. 93 and the subject of an Advisory Opinion delivered on 8 July 1996, also proved a landmark Advisory Opinion of the ICJ. The documents relating to the case include: Volume I: Request for Advisory Opinion; Written Proceedings; Volume II: Oral Statements.

Iain M Banks

Gurgeh, a champion game player, travels a hundred thousand light years to the Empire of Azad, where the winner of their complex game becomes emperor.

Author: Iain M. Banks

Publisher: Orbit Books

ISBN: 9780356502090

Category: Fiction


View: 916

CONSIDER PHLEBAS The war raged across the galaxy. Billions had died, billions more were doomed. Moons, planets, the very stars themselves, faced destruction, cold-blooded, brutal, and worse, random. The Idirans fought for their Faith; the Culture for its moral right to exist. Principles were at stake. There could be no surrender. Within the cosmic conflict, an individual crusade. Deep within a fabled labyrinth on a barren world, a Planet of the Dead proscribed to mortals, lay a fugitive Mind. Both the Culture and the Idirans sought it. It was the fate of Horza, the Changer, and his motley crew of unpredictable mercenaries, human and machine, actually to find it, and with it their own destruction. USE OF WEAPONS The man known as Cheradenine Zakalwe was one of Special Circumstances' foremost agents, changing the destiny of planets to suit the Culture through intrigue, dirty tricks or military action. The woman known as Diziet Sma had plucked him from obscurity and pushed him towards his present eminence, but despite all their dealings she did not know him as well as she thought. The drone known as Skaffen-Amtiskaw knew both of these people. It had once saved the woman's life by massacring her attackers in a particularly bloody manner. It believed the man to be a burnt-out case. But not even its machine intelligence could see the horrors in his past. THE PLAYER OF GAMES The Culture - a human/machine symbiotic society - has thrown up many great Game Players, and one of the greatest is Gurgeh. Jernau Morat Gurgeh. The Player of Games. Master of every board, computer and strategy. Bored with success, Gurgeh travels to the Empire of Azad, cruel and incredibly wealthy, to try their fabulous game ... a game so complex, so like life itself, that the winner becomes emperor. Mocked, blackmailed, almost murdered, Gurgeh accepts the game, and with it the challenge of his life - and very possibly his death.

Global Perspectives on Youth Gang Behavior Violence and Weapons Use

Summary The intergang environment involves and encourages weapons use for a variety of reasons discussed in the next section. Weapons are most often defined as things that are designed or used to cause harm to living beings, ...

Author: Harding, Simon

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 1466699396

Category: Education

Page: 425

View: 857

Youth violence has become a concern as gangs become a popular option for urban children and teenagers and weapons use among young populations becomes more prevalent. Exploring the psychological motivations and foundations upon which such violence is developed and cultivated can assist in better understanding the modern dilemma of violence, weapons use, and gang behavior among children, teenagers, and young adults. Global Perspectives on Youth Gang Behavior, Violence, and Weapons Use reconsiders the traditional understandings of youth violence in various forms, such as gang activities, criminal behavior, and weapons use. Focusing on the psychosocial elements of violence among children, teenagers, and young adults, this timely publication is ideally designed for use by policy makers and government executives, professionals, educators, and graduate-level students involved in psychology, criminology, social work, and criminal justice studies.

First Use of Nuclear Weapons Preserving Responsible Control

Command and control systems contain checks and balances which are designed to eliminate the capability for misuse of nuclear weapons . Physical safeguards designed to prevent unauthorized use are several and varied , depending on the ...

Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on International Relations. Subcommittee on International Security and Scientific Affairs



Category: Deterrence (Strategy)

Page: 252

View: 658

The Tradition of Non Use of Nuclear Weapons

Ac- cidental use is another possibility. A nonnuclear opponent has no guarantee that nuclear weapons will not be used for these reasons as well as in the more significant scenario that the defender loses the conventional battle.

Author: T.V. Paul

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804761310

Category: Political Science

Page: 336

View: 459

An exploration of the rise, persistence, and impact of the tradition of non-use of nuclear weapons followed by nuclear powers for well over sixty years.

Police Use of Force Tasers and Other Less Lethal Weapons

These include less-lethal weapons such as pepper spray, batons or conducted energy devices (CEDs) such as Tasers. They can also use firearms to defend themselves or others against threats of death or serious bodily injuries.


Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 1437986757



View: 380

The Use of Nuclear Weapons and the Protection of the Environment during International Armed Conflict

This seems to be confirmed by the International Court of Justice in the 1986 Nicaragua Case46 and partly recognised in its 1996 Advisory Opinion on the threat or use of nuclear weapons, submitted upon request of the General Assembly ...

Author: Erik V Koppe

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1847314228

Category: Law

Page: 444

View: 690

In 1996, the International Court of Justice delivered an Advisory Opinion on the legality of the use of nuclear weapons in which the Court stated that "while the existing international law relating to the protection and safeguarding of the environment does not specifically prohibit the use of nuclear weapons it indicates important environmental factors that are properly to be taken into account in the context of the implementation of the principles and rules of the law applicable in armed conflict." The present work analyses this conclusion, focusing on the question whether or not the use of nuclear weapons during international armed conflict would violate existing norms of public international law relating to the protection and safeguarding of the environment. Although the use of weaponry during armed conflict is usually related to the protection of individuals, the rapidly emerging appreciation of, and the worldwide realization of the intrinsic value of, the natural environment as an indispensable asset for the continuation of life, including human life, on this planet, both for present and future generations, warrants a thorough and extensive examination of the question of the (il)legality of the employment of nuclear weapons from the point of view of international environmental protection law. The book consists of two parts. Part I discusses the historical development and the effects of nuclear weapons; Part II discusses the protection of the environment during international armed conflict under ius in bello, ius ad bellum and ius pacis. Only then is it possible to assess the legality of the use of nuclear weapons under this particular set of rules.